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1.2. Experience in the United States.
For the Russian Federation it must also take into account the experience of countries (the "melting pot"), successfully conducting an internal national politics at numerous amount of people and faiths. Assimilation is typical for economically developed countries, the bulk of the population have been developed many years ago in the nation and has a clear national identity, and living in the midst of this mass other national groups are few and often less developed in socio-economically and culturally. This process captures the diverse populations: as minorities and immigrants. Representative chief and legislator among the "melting pot" is undoubtedly the United States.
As early as 1923 A. Yashchenko in their dreams, said: "Russia will become the new America, and, like last, will attract millions of immigrants who bring with them new energy, colonization of empty space, build roads and factories, will dig the ore, use the wheel, and will deflate oil, and finally, will make the heritage of humanity everything that is dead and is vain to it."
State based on the new continent, had neither the past nor a homogeneous population, but these circumstances contributed to the creation and expanded social mythology. There were appeared ideas about what America is beginning a new history of mankind. American thinkers began to assess his country as outside the history nation, founded by free will of its founders. The United States since the beginning of its establishment are opposed to Europe and around the world, significantly exceeding its goals and mission purpose.
The principle of equality of peoples and the right of every people to self-determination, enshrined in the Declaration of Independence in 1776 of the United States, has become one of the main slogans of the struggle of the people of the United States for separation from the British Empire and the creation of an independent state. Historically, the American national consciousness included a deep faith in the oneness of origin and destiny of the country. The prevailing culture was steeped in the idea that the Americans is a new nation, which is formed of those who sought freedom in the New World and found it in the next decade was required to carry out their missionary work.
After World War I, when the collapse of several multinational states of the Russian Empire, Austro-Hungary and the Ottoman Empire - has put the world community a question about the fate of nations formerly part of those States, in January 1918 President Woodrow T. Wilson announced in message to Congress his famous "14 points", which proposed to recognize the right of national autonomy of the peoples which had made up the decaying empire.
Most of the population sees multiculturalism, internationalism as a way of life. However, on closer examination the situation with multiculturalism is far from unique. First, nobody says multi languages, all (multinational immigrants, natives) they say to each other, and with the children practically only one official language - American (English). Even the older immigrants are beginning to shy to speak in their native (non-public) language. Language is better than anything else concentrates in itself the culture of the people. National immigrant mentality, planted in their native language, as it is in conflict with the thinking of the power of their new homeland.
Narrow eyes or black skin it's extravagant and attractive, the wife of another nation - is a manifestation of freedom. In accordance with the principles of multiculturalizm on the cover of a children's book they necessarily represent the child with African, Asian or Latin American features, but doing it without any emphasis on ethnicity: do not wear these children in national costumes, do not associate them with the national name, do not hint the historical homeland. Various national cuisines are tasty and good, but multiculturalisme ends here. Everything else is ethnic customs and traditions, all that may divide the country into "us" and "them" - this savagery and incivility, inequality, lack of freedom, this is contrary to the democratic principles of life and, therefore, is condemned and eradicated. There is place of ethnic customs and traditions only in historical museums and in various carnivals. At the same time openly declares the importance of ethnic diversity as a prerequisite condition of cultural wealth and stability of the country.
The U.S. destroys their ethnocentric attitude by dissection at the root of ideology of ethnic minorities and migrants. Open proclaimed internationalism and multiculturalism are hidden vzaimoassimilation being done in the "soft gloves". To keep the real diversity of cultures, according to the point of view of the state, is disadvantageous, and sometimes dangerous. After all, the country is like a family, if pluralism starts in the country, then, on the horizon it will be possible divorce. People need to attach the same values, and what it will be the value the internal socio-evolutionary process will show.
World experience shows that no anti-corruption, or fight against crime, nor the fight against drug trafficking, or the fight against terrorism does not give results, if there is a level, where organizers are banking crimes. This is evidenced, in particular, and the American experience. The activities of the Italian and Latin American mafias significantly weakened only if representatives of these minorities are stopped in one way or another to feel aggrieved, pariahs, when they opened for other spheres of activity.
Internal map of conflicts in the U.S. is markedly different from the Russian. In America, still the main cause of controversy between citizens of the country remains the color of the skin. Even the color Americans who manages to succeed, point out consistently that they don’t feel them like everyone else. Today, African Americans hold high public positions, and it was impossible to imagine 20-30 years ago, but despite this, they continue to talk about a feeling of alienation from the white majority, explaining that they have to live in two worlds, one of which is they are judged by their abilities, and in another the main criterion is race: "We have the right to enter the Big House, but did not become a part of it." In the U.S. today, there are so-called "golden ghetto" areas inhabited by wealthy African-Americans (Chatham in Chicago, North Portal Estates Washington, DC), as they continue to encounter obstacles when they buy homes in affluent areas inhabited by white Americans.
America has made a miracle by changing the stereotype of racial prejudice of vast majority of people in unprecedented short period of time. Racism was not there a century, and was supported by the elite. Back in the 60s of last century in Washington, with the exception of the Central Station (Union Station), there was a place where whites and blacks could meet formally, everything was segregated, and suddenly for a short period of time the situation has changed radically - African-Americans have taken high positions in the administration.
Perhaps it all began with the political will of the country's leader, President John F. Kennedy, who did not hesitate to provide federal protection of constitutional rights to representatives of different racial groups. It was during his governing when African-American student James Meridita was accompanied to the university by the detachment of the National Guard. But Kennedy agreed it only when the firm knew that his actions would be supported by the voters of most populous regions of America, above all, its largest industrial centers, cities. While they were populated mostly by white Americans.
Liberal intellectuals - the leaders of public opinion and, of course, stood for all financial moguls who own the media played a crucial role in the smashing of the negative stereotypes of mass consciousness. When racial unrest threaten a complete collapse of political and economic life, government, and the middle class realized quickly that all their prosperity and well-being would be threatened with collapse. It was when largely dependent upon them media, and few liberal intellectuals, who at all times acted against racism, merged, creating a powerful intellectual fusion, which allowed an unprecedented short period of time - only 15-20 years to change the public mood and after it and the situation, at least in big cities.
Neither Kennedy nor much more liberal Roosevelt, with all his reforms did not infringe on racist sentiments, knowing that they have no chance to be re-elected. The power goes to such steps only when it realizes that may gain significant electoral support. Consequently, the first was changed public mood of influential and significant part of the electorate, and after that the authorities made it a national policy in a major national ideas and only later the process was progressive. Targeted screening in American movies, a successful African American businessman or a scientist instead of a lazy and dirty, "nigga" has successfully transformed the negative stereotypes. The next difficult issue for the U.S. is Latinos. Assuming that current trends and policies will continue, the U.S. population will change significantly in the first half of the twenty-first century, becoming almost 50% white and 25% in Latin America. In this case, the most pressing problem is the extent to which Hispanics assimilate into American society, as they were assimilated by the previous groups of migrants. The second and third generation of Latinos face with a wide range of incentives and ways to pressure, encourage to do this. On the other hand, the Mexican immigration on a range of features - and it has got great potential importance - different from other immigration.
First, migrants from Europe or Asia, crossing the ocean, the Mexicans cross the border on foot or wading in a river. Availability of transport and communications allows them to maintain close ties with their family communities in motherland. Second, Mexican immigrants are concentrated in the southwest of the United States, forming part of Mexican society, which stretches from the Yucatan to Colorado. Third, there is evidence that resistance to assimilation is much higher among Mexican immigrants than among other immigrant groups, and that Mexicans tend to retain their Mexican identity.
Fourth, the area inhabited by Mexican immigrants, was annexed by the United States after the victory against Mexico in the middle of the XIX century. Economic development in Mexico will likely have the Mexicans revisionist mood. Soon the results of the U.S. military expansion in the XIX century, will be jeopardized, and possibly will be back because of Mexican demographic expansion in the twenty-first century. If in this case, the assimilation does not happen, then the U.S. will become a divided country, has all the potential for internal strife, which lead to separation.
In modern political science, as well as in political practice, the American idea of federalism is dominated. However, the U.S. model evolved in specific historical circumstances and based on the ideology of individualism and assimilation. American society was seen as a priori designed on cultural homogenization. This is due to the fact that in the history of American constitutional law the only legitimate approach to minorities was to review their members' as abstract individuals such as all the others." The historical tension between a "federation" and "nation", which dates back to the late XVIII century since the formation of American nationhood, making it impossible for the central government recognition of minority political entities, because this would imply recognition of their status kvazination not compatible with the idea of "melting pot". This is a matter of fact, the roots of the Civil War, 1861-1865.
American federalism is based on a purely territorial concept of federation. It is increasingly seen as a geographical mechanism of aggregation of individual preferences and the organization of political representation without taking into account the non-geographic affiliations, such as ethnicity, religion, tender, sexual orientation and other group of identity. Despite the fact that the idea of multi-culturalism has been widely discussed in contemporary American society, it is in conflict with the nature of American federalism.
As the policy of the Party and Soviet government, aimed at assimilation and russification of nations, to create a new historical community "Soviet people", as and similar policies of "melting pot" in the U.S., which has the goal of "melt down" all national, cultural and ethnic differences of arrivals immigrants in the "American people" - both in the basis set one task - to preserve and strengthen the state.
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