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2.2. Integration of Russian people in a unified civic identity through multiculturalism.
The Constitution of the Russian Federation declares the equality of all nations and peoples, equality of rights and freedoms of citizens, irrespective of gender, race, nationality, language, attitude to religion. It is envisaged that the state should create for the people of equal social and political conditions that allow you to save and develop their culture. But the realization of equality of peoples in Russia today is not realistic. Intractability of the national strategy for intra-subject implies divergence of interests of specific influential people, organizations, agencies and its possible contradictions and interests of whole Russian society.
In solving practical problems is not always possible to streamline the public interest, and sometimes interacting parties do not aim to it: the side having great resources and ethno-religiotsentrisme provides priority of their interests before the state. In addition, there may be cases where it is sometimes very center focuses primarily on the Russian national objectives, principles and values as a source of future and existing ethnic conflicts. An example is the entertainment television show with high ratings ("Our Russia"), as long time the Central Asian nation is derided, represent a significant percentage of migrants working in Russia and it's all done despite regular protests.
Transfer to the memory of future generations the old grievances, injustices, which have not been withdrawn or have not received legal state assessment, proper public censure, in future will must push for radical measures.
The idea of the value of Russia's multi-culturalism was articulated by V. Putin: "Russia is rich not only in resources, it is rich with its multinational culture. Maybe it's its greatest asset. Maybe that's what makes it unsinkable and hard vulnerable. Therefore, concern about such cultural diversity, including linguistic diversity should be a priority for the state". We cannot ignore the historical experience of good-neighborly co-existence of speakers of different cultures and religions in multiethnic Russia for centuries. Given these circumstances, the state national policy of the Russian Federation should be proactive, strategically focused on preventing and resolving ethnic conflicts on the basis of long-term socio-psychological conditions that address all the ethnic tensions within a single national program.
Ethnic integration in a single political and territorial community, has acquired the status of one of the most pressing and urgent problems of mankind as the collapse of colonial empires. The relevance and topicality of this problem even more clearly revealed after the collapse of the Soviet Union, when people were part of it covered the "parade of sovereignties." This period demonstrated the practical importance of theoretical understanding of such concepts as "the territorial integrity of the state" and "right to self-determination" to contain the already walking and prevent future conflicts of separation. In light of this social psychology came to the forefront of social science as a discipline designed to uncover the roots of the unfolding process of disintegration of the "national" communities based on ethnic (including ethno-cultural and ethnic and religious) grounds, a process that can only partly be explained by social class inequality of different nations belonging to the "national" governments. The National Policy of Russia calls for flexibility and structure, and its success should be based on the formation of the desired image of the Russian polyculture. With respect to individual ethnic groups, policies must be implemented selectively and have a clear regional strategy. The formation of Russia's identity based on the Russian polyculture should be accompanied by the development of "mutual attraction to each other" constituent peoples. It is impossible to combine into a whole people, experiencing mutual antipathy, distrust and hatred. Perhaps the Russian national identity will be distributed initially in a narrower range of culturally similar peoples, and only then - to other nations.
It should be borne in mind that without the willingness of the substrate as a Russian ethnic identity of the new Russian and other peoples living in Russia, to forgo part of their national identity in favor of nationwide, the project will be doomed to failure. Different people’s 'speed' and a willingness to accept and positioning themselves with a common civic identity is significantly differentiated and at a sufficiently long period of common civic identity would imply the existence of many sub-types or levels. Wrong tactic of integration processes can be interpreted in nationalistic spirit and can be seen from the Caucasus as chauvinism numerically dominant people and the fear of Russian great power chauvinism. Unfortunately, these assumptions are justified.
At one time, much has been done to promote the Soviet identity, but the Soviet Union was called "the land of victorious multiculturalism." For Soviet citizens ethnicity was not a matter of identity. Soviet experience is certainly helpful for the formation of civic identity, but it must be based on a fundamentally different basis. First of all, it must be accompanied by serious efforts to project a positive image of Russians to the Russian civil identity weans from national one. This project should be sufficiently modernized and at the same time openly separated from the cultural traditions of serving him the basic foundation. In a world of many examples of successful formation of civic identity at the expense of national, and even in pre-revolutionary Russia and the USSR "Russian" became not only the Russian by birth, and all those who took the Russian culture. That is why the number of Russian throughout the history of Russia is determined not so much the birth rate, as the completion of the expense of neighboring peoples.
More culturally developed nation, winning the less-developed, not only promotes its integration, and progressive mutual assimilation. If people conquering weaker conquered people, both culturally and spiritually, it inevitably dissolves into itself conquered ethnic group. As an example, confirms this theory, we can bring the following:
• Russian conquest of Siberia - Siberian peoples were able to quickly jump to the Russian forms of life, many of them are completely assimilated into Russian;
• History of the conquest of the NC - Caucasian peoples are not only slightly assimilated into Russian, but also brought the incoming Russian (Cossack) culture, many of their customs, traditions and norms of behavior.
Sufficiently recognized that minimizing of the severity of ethnic relations in Russia and the country's future largely depends on the solution of the "Russian question" as a set of existing problems in Russia, Russian and abroad. This view is embodied in the Concept of State National Policy of Russia, which noted that "inter-ethnic relations in the country will be largely determined by national well-being of the Russian people, which is the mainstay of Russian statehood." To improve the efficiency of integration interaction must also be installed and some of the Caucasian peoples, defining "halo effect" and increase the subjective significance of positive information about the Russian.
Course claiming legitimacy and value of cultural pluralism, is multiculturalism. Multiculturalism regards all cultures as equal and has the same right to develop and offer their integration. It is often defined not only as an ideology, politics or discourse, but also as a relevant practice, which can be carried out in the soft and hard versions. "One of the character of a soft, multicultural policy is that it is possible within the assimilation of people not so much because they want it, but because they do not have large choice. As a result, representatives of cultural minorities in society, or are unable to maintain their distinctive identity because it is associated with excessive costs, or cannot fully participate in society because of their cultural beliefs and traditions. Hard multicultural approach is that society should take active measures to ensure such people not only full participation in society, but also maximize opportunities to preserve the special identity and traditions. According to this view of diversity should not simply treat tolerated - it must strengthen, encourage and support both financial resources (if necessary), and by granting special rights to cultural minorities.”
Multiculturalism is not accepted by any religious or national organizations of the NC primarily due to the fact that it tells a great mosaic of society and cause the risk of loss of religious and ethnic identity. Nevertheless, in terms of development of democratic processes, where citizens must be given equal rights and opportunities in the field of culture, multicultural practices in demand, and hardly in a growing of cultural diversity can offer a more balanced approaches.
Cultural diversity widens the choices available to each person it is a source of development, understood not only in terms of economic growth, but also as a means of providing a more satisfactory intellectual, emotional, moral and spiritual life. The key to cultural diversity is the freedom of expression, media pluralism, multilingualism, equal access to opportunities for artistic, scientific and technical knowledge, including in digital form and ensuring that all cultures to have access to the means of expression and dissemination.
The major reserve of varieties is ethno-cultural differences. The problem of ethnic and cultural differences today deserves the closest attention, because the contradictory of modernization processes unusually exacerbates the group, primarily ethnic consciousness. Experts believe that ethnonational factor threatens to eclipse soon all other issues of social development - social, economic, and spiritual. Rather, the latter will manifest themselves in the national color, in "ethnic box".
L.G. Ionin, highlighted the main methods in founding of polystylistic type of culture:
- Deierarhisation, which is important in several respects: a) as the absence of a hierarchy of expressive culture, and b) as a rejection of the doctrinal core of the sacred, which serves as criteria for assessing any social and cultural phenomenon, and c) as a rejection of much different group of bureaucrats, so-called creators of culture;
- Decanonization, meaning a mix of genres and styles;
- The disorder that breaks the space-time procedure for the realization of cultural events;
- Detotalisation that destroys the culture of any visible unity of the perceived;
- Inclusion, which means a maximum of cultural tolerance;
- Diversification, suggesting divers development, and when there are more and more complex system of interaction between traditional, cultural styles, ways of life.
This set of categories is not exhaustive. It is clear that the task of constructing a multi-cultural
environment of Russia's much more complicated than the ideal design, but the methods of L.G. Ionin offer at least a scheme in which you want to follow.
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