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Scientific Advisory Center "Consciousness"
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3.3. Working with the media.
Under the influence of objective and subjective factors specific to the conditions of globalization, national and cultural development can be folded both positive and negative for options. Modern information technology, television, radio, Internet, Audio-video can both displace the culture of relatively small nations, and contribute to their lives in a single information space. This approach is fully applicable to Russia, despite the fact that the country has strong historical background to a balanced ethnic and cultural development.
Ernest Gellner, as a founding father of the constructionist conception of the nation, in order to better understand gives metaphor of giant aquarium, where it’s necessary to maintain artificially flora and microclimate, such as education aids culture, church, mass media means, due to its symbolic and symbolic activity act the role of the apparatus to maintain the national climate. At the end of the XX century the baton in the construction of social reality (including its national aspect) is increasingly shifting from the traditional culture devices (such as school, college, homes and cultural institutions, the church) to the industry of the formation of consciousness in the face of media.
Politics is become increasingly media( mediatiziruetsya), election of parliament, senior officials of the state depends on whether the image is created and the leaders of political parties and how to vote will be counted, accounted for by electronic systems. Media have the most powerful influence on ethnocontact set of people with different cultural identities, and in ethnotension it’s often provide an effective means of ethnic and religious mobilization. Taking into account the destructive nature of domestic inter-ethnic confrontations, it is legitimate to speak about the protection of Russian society from the impact of conflict-media, provoking the growth of xenophobia and negative impact on ethnocontact situation.
Separation of Caucasians, and Russian, and Russian opposition to the NC is replicated by the Russian media often do not because that is goal-setting of TV channels directors or clients of the material is more likely this is due because of ignorance and negligence in relation to the national question. This is especially true for the main central TV channels, which, judging by their work, have no special knowledge in the field of international relations. So far, it is believed that the presentation of ethnic problems does not require special education, but life itself shows the opposite.
TV (with such programs as "Name of Russia", historical blockbusters such as "1612", "Alexander. Battle on the Neva," "Admiral", the series "Cadets") sets the frame of interpretation and vision of the past present and future. Often military scenarios written stereotyped are replicated by a central mass media and form, polarize and intensify religious and ethnic differences in Russian society. For example, Valery Povolyaev in his story "Silent outpost," published in the Federal Border Guard Service "Border", talks about the "Soviet" Tajik Muslims: “spooks (dushman) ... (dushki) ... they are part of the master of torture and various malices - and cut off the head of Orthodox, and rips their stomachs, and deny manhood, and boil the living soldiers in petrol, and hang them on hook, like sheep. Russian people will have never think of that, how conceive brothers Muslims, is never so senselessly cruel. "
The same author speaks through the mouth of the chief of frontier captain Panov following words, addressed to the Tajik boy, invited to the frontier by Panov him-self: "What are you, bachonok, look out for? Do you want to pay back evil for good? That's what the Soviet Muslim - does not remember the goods, any of this, does not recognize neither present, nor future, I'm going to do him good, but he pretends like to sell me more expensive. Though Allah and the Koran teach him good ... But the Soviet is so perfect, nothing can fix such a person. Only perhaps a bullet. "
The dynamics of the relationship to the people of NC on central TV channels can be presented in four stages:
The first is ignorance. Practically there is no information. Russian would never have learned from television and newspapers, that such nationality even exist in Russia. This largely depends on the number of people and their "strategic" significance. This is most of North Caucasian peoples, except the Chechens, Dagestani and Ingush. Kudartsy (South Ossetians) would also be in the shadows, come over conflict with Georgia.
The second is stereotyping. Whole nations are represented in the ignorant, does not comply with modern standards picture. Nowadays, a good example of stereotyping are Chechens, Ingush, Dagestani, rarely seen on Russian television, causing a positive or sympathetic characters, but their leaders.
The third is the integration. When representatives of the people of the NC are beginning to appear in social positive images of defenders of Russia (e.g., police, special services).
The fourth is assimilation. When representatives of the peoples of the NC have the full range of the same roles both positive and negative as the majority. The range of roles is becoming more widely: the good and clever characters - along with the wicked and stupid and there are no visible boundaries to ethnicity.
Based on the above classification the central Russian television is on the 1st-2nd stage - the stage of separation. It is difficult to imagine a feature film, where the criminals are of Slavic appearance, intelligence officials are the Caucasus, unless of course it's not a comedy. Potential impacts of scenarios of Russian films, broadcast on CTV, are particularly conspicuous when the audience sees only Caucasians as negative characters. This also applies to news, for example, "normal" domestic murder in Moscow, if the suspect or the victim is Caucasian, then they try to mention, which a native of the republic he was.
Discuss (raise) sharp questions with regards to, for example the presence of prostitutes among Caucasians, for Caucasians is - sorry, hurt, shame, indecent, undignified. It will either be the last to shy away from debate (avoidance of discussion and refusal to answer difficult questions - is generally the deepest tradition among Caucasians), or will never recognize the existence of such women, or admit that they have, but not in his nation, teip, family. Even knowing that he was factually wrong and contrary to all laws of logic, Caucasian, foaming at the mouth will always stand for the position of his nationality, and only then, perhaps, in a moment of mental weakness, will say that they say, "yeah, you know, there are really these cases."
The individual occupying the leading creative and administrative positions in the television channels should understand the need for integration. In general, you can see at least one of the reasons for the low level of employment in all-Russian nationalities in the NC broadcasting industry, due not so much overt discrimination, but rather by the people who make decisions, and administrative staff it's mostly Russian Jews, and on television is shown their world.
Stage of integration begins with the "undetectable accession" to the peoples of the NC, adapted to the psychology, life, culture, religion, language. It should go very subtly, on a subconscious level. Adjustment - this is not an imitation, which is noticeably, exaggerated and indiscriminately copying certain patterns of behavior. Only at first glance it seems easy to join in the execution. It is designed and calibrated to the smallest detail work.
Hypothesis of cultivation suggests that watching television starts the unification of different categories of viewers, as they all get same type of structured information. Long-term impact of these common structural models of TV phenomenon causes with the mainstream trend. In other words, different types of TV shows (cartoons, romance, detective stories) are often built on the same narrative structure, resulting in a uniform selection of characters and plot devices. Caucasians characterize today's digital TV as a vivid manifestation of Russian chauvinism. Whatever the universal method, they must be adjusted, taking into account the mental attitudes and ethnic cultural traditions of the NC.
Television uses a tacit social agreement, expressed the readiness to believe: the population at some time takes the characters, which sees on TV for real people, so can identify with them, experiencing their joys and sorrows. Media do not only introduce the nation together, but sometimes the only source of information about each other.
The above-described matters are rarely discussed, and detailed scientific studies are even rarer. The results obtained could help to restore balance:
1. An in-depth analysis of how the media portrays this or that nationality.
2. To determine the quality and quantity of characters of TV programs, feature films, etc., belonging to various ethnic groups.
3. To examine stereotypes of some people, men and women created by the media.
4. To determine what is the impact of such images in the process of integration and assimilation.
5. To examine how the media portray the Russian heartland of the Tajiks, Arabs, the elderly and young, gay and lesbian people, rich and poor, and so on.
6. To investigate the effect of images of each group on the perception of the inhabitants of certain territories of the Russian Federation.
Imaging of Caucasians by TV affects both the Russian and on the Caucasians themselves. Like Russian, Caucasians more often identify themselves with characters who show valor and bravery, have high status and authority, trying to emulate the heroes, and it does not depend on the nationality of the hero.
Watching television, to be attended by actors of Caucasian origin, will affect the Russian setting, making them more tolerant and less ethnocentric. On television, it must be submitted to a series of characters with those of Caucasian appearance. Special emphasis needs to be done on the transfer of humor, soap operas, talk shows, feature films.
The dynamics of ethnic and cultural processes depends largely on the development of educational and cultural infrastructure, as well as the consumption of cultural property goes through various channels. Their presence is essential for the "delivery" of cultural goods to consumers. The most important cultural and, in general, the socializing influence on the ways of spending free time, ideology, social and ethical values are outside the cultural institutions and for the most part due to the impact of such influential institutional sources such as television, Internet, and in the near future will probably be closely linked with the development of satellite television. In the union of interactive communication technologies and digital methods of information delivery network the Internet is the chief mediator. One can predict that this will occur against the background of the further individualization of consumption of cultural products.
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