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4.3. Upgrading Horizontal (national, religious, cultural) connections is upgrade of ethnicity.
Following the transformation of vertical ties is the turn of the horizontal defined by traditions, customs, religion, culture and language. For Chechens , Avars, leaving the Ingush republic, is not enough only knowledge of the native language. The growth of population increases mobility of "imperial" role of the Russian language and at the same time multiply the number of those who were forced to use it without being a natural medium. Ignorance or poor knowledge of Russian language is a barrier to social advancement. Life confronts the necessity of choosing (or compromise) between native and Russian. The same is with religion, customs, and rules of everyday life, etc. Step by step, with different rates for different social, ethnic, linguistic or religious groups, society is constantly moving in search of a new "we" and the new "they".
The formation of post-Soviet Russian national identity by definition is a long term project. By itself, ethnicity of religion, is not an obstacle for modernization. However, as a nation and religion are very real and unavoidable way for each state of a destructive process, the statesmen have to act in an ethno-religious environment and to the success of this activity they are required to act as "the most ardent nationalists and religious fundamentalists." However, such activity is not straightforward. It is to "lead" the consciousness of the representatives of different peoples and religions, a certain territory (state) as possible chaotic for them (apparently), so that in the end, ethnic and religious differences have been overcome and forgotten.
An analysis of historical experience and current situation in international relations has shown that attempts to build a state based on the fundamental priority of the nation, to the actual decision of the national question cannot lead. This path has no future, primarily because it ignores the very idea of equality of nations, as the right of nations to create "their" nation-state area with a multi-ethnic population means loss of the same rights of non-indigenous population. It can only be solved by relying on the idea of an equal union of all peoples and consistent democracy in the relations between them. This requires the elimination of the current system of national-state formations of the Russian Federation in its form in which it is subordinate to ensure the priority development of indigenous nationalities and ignores the needs in the same development of non-indigenous peoples and ethnic groups. Until recently, such proposals caused purely academic interest. Now they have become an urgent political issue.
Ethnicity and religion themselves are not a direct obstacle to modernization. But at the same time, ethnocentrism and religious fundamentalism are very real and inevitable way for the destructive process in the federal structure of government. The principles of ethnocentrism and religion are incompatible with the principle of social evolutionary process and they must be "sacrificed to the last" - is one of the basic compliance requirements for worldwide progress and modernization. It is impossible at one and the same time to develop, consistent with the present of twenty-first century and remain a nationalist and religious fundamentalist. Between the principle of social evolutionary progress and the principles of ethnocentrism and religion there is an irreconcilable antagonism. It's safe to say that globalization leads to a period of one universal high-tech culture and the observed resistance to this in the direction of a return to traditional culture, leading to painful lack of compliance with the requirements of modern.
It is known that any well-developed socio-cultural system can be represented as a two-part structure - a core of culture and the protective belt. The core of culture concentrates the norms, standards and rules of operation and value system. Structures, which implement the core of culture is, above all, folklore, mythology, superstition, national and social customs, rules of everyday behavior, historical tradition and the basic language structures. National issue is resolved consistently and national languages are developed only as a means and the shortest path from multiculturalism to diverse and multifaceted monoculture. A.D. Gradovskii as a result of his studies of history and historiography of the national question came to the conclusion that people are reborn under the influence of their own creativity and exposure to other cultures.
Since the main function of a nucleus of culture is the preservation and transmission of self-identity society, it is highly resistant. However, the core of culture cannot remain unchanged in an absolute sense. Representing actually an information structure, it should be changed, since by definition information is a way for capturing and transferring the changes.
To preserve the core of culture in the process of historical development, there is a special cultural protection zone. It acts as a filtering mechanism, transparent to directory information, which goes from the core culture, but tracking and absorbing information impulses coming into the society of other cultures. The security zone performs a different function - the adaptation to the surrounding social and technological environment.
The tradition may have a positive impact on the process of modernization, but can - keep him, as well as the process of modernization could lead to a weakening of tradition, and may contribute to its strengthening. This is a contradiction between the social system (institutionalized) and the system group (non-institutional) norms - on the other hand. Group rates recede into the background during the modernization of society. The traditions are the core of culture and the main target (and often just the enemy, brake) of the process of modernization. Underestimation and disregard of any real impact and the weight of tradition leads to the idea of modernization of isolation from the population and processes of modernization themselves to defeat. Reassessing the role of the same tradition, which is often the result of ignorance of the mechanisms of their emergence and development, pushes power to passivity and to demodernization. So, for the success of modernization have mentioned to avoid extreme positions: ignoring tradition and exaggerating their importance. The tradition is fundamentally quite conservative, but it nevertheless is subject to the processes of change and development. Tradition as one of the key elements of the ruling social-cultural, determines the degree of perception of the universal norms and goals of political development and the successful modernization can be realized only when the value orientations of large social levels.
Meanwhile, the gap between the level of modernization of different nations in Russia is very significant. This gap can be attributed to many of the existing ethno-political problems in southern Russia.
One of the major substantial vectors of modernization of the North-Caucasus the political process is gradually expanding the range of legitimate socio-political associations, even the inclusion of separatist movements, strictly oriented activities in the constitutional normative legal framework and firmly condemn the methods of struggle against separatist-terrorist underground. However, steps toward modernization require substantial reinforcement of the deployment of psycho-social programs and measures.
The political practice of post-Soviet period showed, none of the republic of the NC does not have an internal resource for sustainable development of the sovereign state unit. And their successful modernization can only be done as part of Russia, with strong financial, logistical, social, cultural and informational support to the federal government.
The experience of many countries shows that assimilation of modern societies is provided not only with the political will of authorities and administrative hierarchy, as the strength of horizontal civic bonds. The fact that each person has its own customs, traditions, religion and behavior, in which he raised and which used to it, are closer than others, and strangers often seem strange, absurd, and even unacceptable - it is normal and natural. But today’s reality is that these real or imagined differences between Caucasians and Russian became hostile attitudes. Of course, it is endemic character, because with the increasing of unification of cultural forms in Russian and Caucasian societies trend of treatment to their roots develops. The growth of ethnic self-interest in the religious heritage - all these are manifestations of the demand be higher than the (initially) other peoples, other religions.
Without belittling the importance of self-interest of national and religious movements, ethnoelit and foreign forces, the base of the radicalism is not generated by the will and mind of the individual - it is the source is the nation itself, its objective goals and interests. In other words, nationalism and religious fundamentalism act as a form of (ideological and political) expression of the peoples of their goals and interests, considering that the main goal for them is the creation or retention of an independent state. Thus, ethno-sectarian movement for the creation of an independent state called "liberation" or "separatist", it is necessary to recognize an objective and a natural phenomenon arising from the nature of national-territorial structure of the Russian Federation.
The experience of many countries shows that assimilation of modern societies is provided with not only the political will of authorities and administrative hierarchy, as the strength of horizontal civic bonds. It identifies and one of the areas: strengthening the foundations of Russian statehood horizontal in ethno-cultural diversity. It is about building a civic nation, united by ties of solidarity, independent on the ethno-national belonging. Most social ethnopsychologist, bearing in mind the historical experience of the 30s, when exalted nationalism became one of the sources of fascism and National Socialism, as well as the bloody inter-ethnic wars and conflicts of post-Soviet period, strongly emphasize the irrational and potentially dangerous for the stability of society and nationalist movements associated with it emotion. "The national identity must be displaced in the area of private life and culture of politics and decision-making" - such a ruling was handed down to nationalism by Francis Fukuyama. According Pierre Trudeau: "The state, which defines its activities mainly in terms of ethnic and religious characteristics, inevitably becomes chauvinistic and intolerant. Nationalists, political reactionaries are guided in determining the "common good" interests of ethnic groups or religious ideal, but not the concept of "all people" regardless of their individual characteristics".
While the new, modernization culture will not get regulatory and institutional characteristics will not become the norm of nationwide including Caucasian behavior any modernization (technological) changes will not "settle down". The reason for failure of the process of modernization is not innovations in themselves and their unlimited character. Mechanical reproduction, not ending with a new synthesis, the inability to create new institutions, regulatory mechanisms and the "new levels of social community" leads to an anti-modernization reactions - nationalism, traditionalizm. I.e. the main cause of failure of modernization is not a traditional resistance to environmental innovation and the absence of a new sustainable social level, within which could be a productive interaction of diverse ethnic and values (cultural, religious) systems. The success of the upgrade will be determined by the extent to which manage to create the same for all ethnic groups of the type of perception.
Tradition and religion - is the foundation of national and social structures, as well as the public consciousness. They define sustainability. Therefore one of the key tasks of information-psychological warfare is to change or destruction. A certain selectivity of action can allow virtually eliminate the ethnic and sectarian differences, and simultaneously provide increased value of Russian statehood. That is, at some stage of the impact may be positive feedback that accelerates the process of reprogramming - the attraction to other cultures (Russian for Caucasian and vice versa). Ethnicity and religion should gradually withdraw from areas of public and incorporation into popular tradition has gradually eroded it from inside.
Discourse on the state level about - what traditions are better, what are worse - is devoid of any logic. Their score always depends on who evaluates and from what point of view. Mutual assimilation of people cannot be purely one-sided. Center only needs to "connect" and "mixed" peoples, and the process of evolution itself without human mind will choose the right customs and traditions. Traditions are not programmed in the subconscious of the people factor, something of a genotype, which implicitly develops only on their own internal logic. They are created, secured, and start to act spontaneously, they are not fatal and does not factor may play a role in the world-historical scale. However, during traditional regression, which can be seen on the NC, the tradition may play a role of additional factors that could delay the process of modernization.
Every nation has a basic set of traditions and customs that define the behavior of its individuals. The greater the power of the set of traditions and customs and their relationships, more stable nation to action and targeted information. Next question - traditions include the irrational, and the conscious element. It is believed that as with development of the modernization of culture, the conscious element is been increasing.
Full of ethnic culture in the dominant Russian culture must be practically free. Should only be different degrees of mixing, where the elements of the Russian culture and Caucasians are connected in such a way that they form a new stable combination, a new culture. Is necessarily the reverse impact that cultures of Caucasians gives on Russian.
Stability of ethnicity and religion of North Caucasian peoples to external exposure is linked to their structuring, the presence of multiple redundant links. Thus, in contrast to the Caucasian community, the Russian can be described as unstable, but instability in the Russian force there and the Russian culture. It may seem that the basic structure is completely destroyed by Russian society, but it re-grouped in a state with subordinates, and masters. Only with the destruction of horizontal and vertical links anti-Russian situation on the NC will may be reversible.
The question of the revival of ancient social institutions (families, teips) with a simultaneous revival of the old framework (traditional law) their operation is constantly being discussed by various national organizations. At first glance, it's very quick and easy option, especially as relics of these institutions, although in a transformed state, but also in some Caucasian (Ingush) societies have been survived. But it is absolutely hopeless way in historical perspective, since on the one hand, there are no basic conditions (the unity of the territory, common economic and political interests, etc.) the functioning of these institutions, on the other hand, resuscitation of teyp’s structures must inevitably lead to the collapse of republics in the modern sense of the word. After all, the Caucasian states existing in the clan democracy, were quasi states in which there was no majority of public institutions. For example, in their bulk Vainakhs were very wary of any attempt to the birth of feudal power and the feudal aristocracy and the common efforts suppressed them radically. This is evidenced by a wealth of folk material and the custom of "dispossession" prevailed among the Chechens and very rarely found in other nations.
In the transformation of the ethnic policy in the policy of ethno-cultural, is not enough discussion about the equal value of the cultural heritage of all peoples of Russia. They need the providing of new paradigm for recognition of plant diversity of cultures and the necessity of their interactions, anchoring them to the concept of public policy in the ethno-cultural development. It is not excluded that it will require the adoption of legislation in the field of cultural diversity, including ethnic and cultural processes to strengthen security, conflict prevention. Cultural policy should take into account the growth of ethnic and cultural identities and the variability tailored to the recognition of cultural diversity on the basis of the available domestic and international experience, in fact to be multicultural.
Simultaneously, Russia's policy in the field of culture must be of culture and information, provide for overcoming the negative consequences of information technology for the development of cultural pluralism, preservation of diversity. The new culture does not arise only in connection with the improvement of communication systems, and one of the most serious disadvantage is ignored the social and cultural criteria and the effects of mass communication. Relationship of culture with social development requires not only that all people have the capacity of communication and information, but also have good quality information and the very activity of mass media was based on the principle of balance of market efficiency and social justice, respect for certain moral standards, so desperately is the issue of developing cultural policy that would minimize negative socio-cultural impacts of modern information technologies.
Today at the NC should start to "write" a new cultural memory by establishing nationwide ideological scenery - the traditional practice of cultural construction of the Empire, and it should be, first of all, in education, not in propaganda. Ethnic communities tend to keep themselves, their historical experience, culture and identity. Of course, the whole vast experience should not be forgotten. In the context of opposition to the integration of the North Caucasian clan culture it is understood to mean that art, music cannot be considered isolated. North Caucasus, as well as all of Russia's cultural intelligentsia must to develop multiple vehicles against the monopolization of perception, and the homogenization of cultural landmarks, customs, and traditions. So it will be possible to demonstrate the absurdity of a mono-ethnic and whatever religious spectacle.
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