AREA OF GLOBALIZATION, DEMOCRATIZATION, INTELLECTUALIZATION
THINK TANK "FALCOGROUP"
Scientific Advisory Center "Consciousness"
My Great Web page
1.2. Migration of peoples.
Migration processes in the NC have a distinct ethnic character. Since the eighteenth century and to the 1990s, Russian was the dominant nation on the demographic invasion of the territory of the NC. Exports of Russian and their language, culture was perhaps the most important aspect of the flourishing empire1. The collapse of the Soviet Union was marked by a return current migration. Today this process is continuing on the southern borders of Russia2.
Manifestation of the state of regression (demodernization) was an outcome of the Caucasian society of alternative non-title Forces (Russian) able to make the necessary agenda for the modern life of this society and to ensure that the agenda of key issues such as economic and political governance, education and cultural production3. Such an outcome has different causes and different forms, but in general it is the nature of rejection or protest. From the republics of Eastern Caucasus was first forced to leave the vast majority of representatives of non-titular population. Then Islamization, unemployment, and terrorist activities pushed many Caucasians4. In this case, the number and quality of the perpetrators of the outcome in relation to the total population of the republics becomes fundamental, since changing the socio-cultural context of nations.
Studying the migration processes in the North Caucasus region can come to the conclusion that the main operating factor influencing the scale of migration from the Russian region is likely that the Russian far less than the indigenous people, equipped with a capital initial informal ties. This social capital acts as a "totality of relationships" that can be efficiently converted into a competitive advantage for scarce or prestigious positions.
Possible negative scenarios are embedded in a diffuse reduction of influence of the Russian Centre for the North Caucasus border regions. The danger is not so much a periodic separation and capture-oriented ideology of the individual areas of the NC as a stable expansion of this ideology into Russia1. At the same time, it is clear that the mood and attitudes of Russian border zone (Stavropol, Astrakhan Region, Krasnodar Territory) depends on the nature of interethnic relations in the republics themselves.
In the framework of a constructive scenario should be considered and slow version of the situation. Today's the nature of demographic and migration processes in the NC says about the stable version. In connection with the natural population decline of Russia, migration, at least until mid-century will be almost the only source of new labor force 3. Migration to the neighboring Caucasus region and the region in coming decades will increase, therefore, a selective approach to the formation of the main contingent of migrant. It seems that the main criterion of selectivity must meet certain guidelines.
Affecting the general population and its culture structure, migration becomes a constant and quite a considerable component of Russian society. The most important question for a constructive scenario is how to use the migration of the peoples of the North Caucasus into Russia for good? If it happens on the same natural way as now, in the near future will be the need to expand the territories of the republics at the expense of border regions and provinces.
Migration contributes to the transfer of the republics of the NC most valuable resource - human potential2. The country will have undoubted benefits of these investments, if he can make use productive of the Caucasians and the benefits of this will exceed the cost of their education, assimilation, pensions, etc. Mainly by improving the management of migration of peoples of the NC is the development of differentiated measures - considered policy of settlement, not based on consideration of the interests of migrants, and accounting of public policy.
Need to think through the regional strategies of migration policies, especially resettlement of certain ethnic groups across the country. Already, for example, the concentration of migrants in some areas of the Armenians of Krasnodar region causes a negative reaction of the host community3 . You may need the introduction of regional restrictions for migrants, for example, the introduction of rules under which members of a particular national group do not exceed the flow of migrants accommodated a certain threshold. Ethnic groups of migrants are more likely to preserve the original identity in the compact settlement4 and, in contrast, rapidly changing identity in favor of the host community with a dispersed settlement. It will also be taken into account in policy integration.
It is also necessary to take into account the degree of closeness to the Russian culture. If the degree of cultural affinity is low, it is necessary to seek possible variety of ethnic settlement migration. Formation of the Russian identity will be quicker and easier in circumstances where migrants have no possibility of a single center of consolidation. If a certain area is dominated by people from one republic, representatives of one nation, it is easier to maintain the old identity, than to accept Russian (supra-ethnic).
Today, the migration of North Caucasian peoples to the north can be characterized as a slow phase-out, wave migration at the initial stage (a starting point). Its essence boils down to the position that the relocation should occur in areas located close to their republics - Stavropol and Krasnodar, Astrakhan, Volgograd and Rostov Region. The migration of Caucasians does not meet the expression of resistance but only increases the number of retired Russian beyond the edges of the region and the SFD. It is also necessary to take into account the degree of closeness to the Russian culture.
Over time, any migration tends to create its own support infrastructure5. As a result, migration flows become strong domestic momentum, which will enable them to resist in the future, manipulation of public policy. So in the Stavropol region center of gravity shifts smoothly Russian settlement in the north-west (Neftekumsk district, the proportion of Russian is 37.6%)1 If in 2009 the Stavropol Territory informally called the "border area", then in 2010 became known as the center of NC. In section of SFD and allocation of the Stavropol Territory in North Caucasus Federal District, it is even more positive impact on reducing the overall share of Russian, which clearly emphasizes the process of their care from the Caucasus.
The leader in out-migration is Chechnya. Exodus began in the fall of 1991 and intensified with the beginning of the creation of Ichkeria. The functionaries of destroyed Soviet regime and employees of state apparatus left Chechnya first, then - skilled workers of dilapidated industrial and service sectors. In addition to Russian-speaking immigrants were a significant number of Ingush and Dagestan. The Chechens themselves, mostly intellectuals, professionals and employees were leaving the republic from 1992-1993. Focused number of Chechens who have left the Ichkeria in period 1991 to 1995 was about 100 thousand people. Understand that this outflow has increased even more in the subsequent military campaign. Chechens prefer to settle in Kalmykia and in the south-eastern part of the Rostov region.
Encourage causes of migration from the country still exist today. In our times - the Avars, the refugees from the village of Borozdinovskaya, located at the camp “Nadezda" next to Kizlyar, discuss the possibility of moving to permanent residence in one of the regions of Russia. As one of the options they consider moving to rural areas of the Rostov region. A similar situation is in stanitsa Dubovskaya - Dargins leave, but most do not move in Dagestan, but in Kalmykia, Astrakhan region in either. In addition to the Dagestani peoples Kazan Tatars leave the republic, in the village Grebenskaya - Taracli left them less than 300 people. In the nogai village Sary Su according to the local population, there were organized all the conditions for their departure from the country. Since the first Chechen war, the Nogai have begun to migrate to the Nogai district of Dagestan, and from there gradually to the Stavropol region.
USA/UK 2007-2012 © FALCOGROUP