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1.3. The formation of diasporas.
The Soviet Encyclopedic Dictionary gives the classical definition of the term "diaspora", "Diaspora - a set of people of certain ethnic or religious background, who live in a country or region of a new settlement 2 ." General director of VCIOM Valery Fyodorov, said: "The leaders of ethnic communities themselves have the key to inter-ethnic peace and cooperation, who need to ensure that moderation and tolerance of their diasporas3."
The basis of migratory behavior are both objective factors (economic) and subjective (stereotypes and installation). However, as greater importance is the psychological dynamics of the Caucasian republics of the community outside of the NC, you must start with a description of the subspecies of diaspora:
1) The "smoothed". Humanitarian, technical and creative intelligentsia, which moved from the NC republics mainly because of the possibility of more complete and comprehensive self-realization. These people usually have a conscious set for getting used to the new environment, establishing broad contacts in it, but not for assimilation, while under the influence of the strong impact of assimilating of Russian environment (and its great comfort for Caucasians - to the early 90's.) assimilation all nevertheless gradually was taking place. This group is not typical manifestation of the "household" nationalism. This is mostly Russian-speaking immigrants from the Caucasus environment, i.e. that segment of the population who received education in Russian schools and spoke in Russian. This group is characterized as a double circle of friends: a fellow separately with Russian separately.
2) "severe." The comes, settled from permanent residence from rural areas and from lower in the social strata of urban republics of the NC. They, for the most part characterized by the "consumer" nationalism, sometimes exclusively national circle of friends, preserve their native language as the language of communication in everyday life and everyday behaviors. However, only a few of the members of this group tend to be "ideological" nationalism. For them, the whole thrust is not specific to unite on a national basis, outside their usual circle. If compatriot solidarity is manifested, it regards immigrants from the same locality, the same areas.
3) "vague." These are assimilated Caucasians with weak national identity or even the lack of it. Most of the subgroup is the so-called second generation born on a new home. They know the Russian language and do not know the language of their ancestors, have the same level of education, the same professional qualifications, more than the Russian, support the pursuit of integration, even to complete loss of their national identity. But with the appearance of emergence flash about Russian nationalists, with the power of the knit of the Russian Orthodox Church and the parade of the Cossacks, waving his sword as smartly as when they cutting thousands of their ancestors, they begin to feel that there is something that they have lost, forgotten, exchanged, sold. And it's something - their culture and historical memory, soaked completely different feelings - honor, valor, courage, respect for ancestors, and most importantly - a sense of home. Since then, they start with bitterness make sure that they are viewed as strangers ("Came here"), not belonging to the ROC, or to the titular nation.
There are two basic models of interaction between the republics of NC with their countrymen in Russia: repatriation and diaspora. The first is to develop policies that help to return to their historical homeland, the second - and in promoting the normal development of a new homeland. However, none of the republic today has not worked out an unambiguous policy towards its diaspora. Can be substantial grounds to say that this policy differs to a certain extent, and forced spontaneity. Only with the restoration of constitutional order in the Chechen Republic President Ramzan Kadyrov made public repatriation model, but still return to the republic was observed only among refugees living in Ingushetia and Dagestan.
Typically diasporas tend to one dominant feeling - a feeling of sympathy and complicity in the fate of their former compatriots, most often manifested in the forms of solidarity and assistance, if such they need1. In turn, the factor of Diaspora, especially if they are numerous and influential - is a powerful political and social resource for those people and their politicians, who can be mobilized for various purposes, including to achieve a radical project as the achievement of political independence or possible changing demographics in favor of the group that lost its dominant status, including because of reason of historical migrations2. As a rule, the Diaspora, or rather its active elements both politically and emotionally biased in unequivocal support of his people, even if its members have become loyal and full-fledged citizens of other states and even assimilate with other cultures3.
North Caucasian diaspora are still young and is in its formative stages. Until recently, these diasporas did not exist. Russian colonization was seen as an internal and, leaving to the Far East or to Moscow from the Caucasus continued to feel at home, outside of the country never formed a stable, closed communities and quickly assimilated by the population of those areas where they lived. The exception was the situation with the peoples of deportation, but it was violent and ill-considered migration. Peoples settled
locally, in difficult conditions and expectations for assimilation with the local population almost there was not4.
The Chechen diaspora. Among others, the tragedy of the Chechen crisis was the emergence of a large Chechen community5 (about 80 thousand people.) in Moscow. This could not happen under normal circumstances (before the war lived in Moscow 2 thousand Chechens). In fact, most of Grozny moved in Moscow and mainly have already found its place here. Develops a new system of economic and political patronage of this community by the large Chechen businessmen and politicians, including State Duma deputy
from Chechnya Aslanbek Aslakhanov 1 started to publish the Chechen newspaper and radio program broadcasting on Chechnya was appeared2.
The Moscow community takes effect, including on what is happening in Chechnya. Its pro-Russian orientation demonstrates the confidence and anti-Chechen sentiment in the country and especially in the capital experienced an extremely painful. This Russian Chechens, who in addition to ethnic (actually vneteypovoy and without sharp internal partitions) and a dual loyalty to the perception of the homeland: small - in the face of the long and has being restored Chechnya and large - Russia in the face of his city of residence. Given the demographic characteristics (higher fertility and the possibility of Chechnya moving of new residents), "Moscow's Chechnya" will likely grow in number and becoming increasingly influential in society.
The Chechen diaspora in abroad is relatively small (not more than 100 thousand people.) And its highest concentration falls on the Middle East, especially Jordan, where the Chechens and Circassians were resettled by the Ottoman government as military colonists after the Russian-Turkish war of 1877-1878. Some of the Chechens left the Soviet Union during the Civil and Second World Wars. Among the foreign Chechens are well-known politicians and public figures, as well as wealthy businessmen, who from the very beginning supported the "Chechen revolution", some of them arrived in Chechnya to cooperate with Dudayev, such as his foreign minister, Youssef Shamsuddin, a citizen of Jordan, follow extremely anti-Russian positions.
A number of prominent Chechens formed the party in the U.S.A. "Vainakh" and the Northen caucasus Committee in America, who occupied the position of support for the independence of Chechnya, although some of its leaders, such as, for example, Abdurahman Avturkhanov, a renowned historian and a writer, did not support a policy of breaking with Russia. Even during the activation of anti-Dudaev opposition in the summer of 1994 the above-mentioned committee announced the appeal based primarily on reports from the press in Russia. It expressed concern that "the Russian secret services had decided to strangle the independent of Chechnya by hands of Chechens themselves.”
Statement from the most famous Chechen dissident living in Munich, that "the freedom of an independent Chechnya would be able to defend with arms the grandchildren of those who had been deported in 1944 to Central Asia in cattle cars3," was published in Grozny during the celebration of a three-year anniversary of the Chechen revolution. This act had a profound effect, inciting militant spirit Dudayev, as if giving a blessing to the external struggle.
Russian diaspora. Russian diaspora in the republics, until recently, also did not exist, because the Russian people living there did not take themselves as aliens. But after the collapse of Soviet Union everithing has changed: there is every reason to regard them as the Russian diaspora. Such an interpretation is consistent and well-being of many Russian living in the republics. Feeling a minority group, experiencing the social, political, cultural, economic discomfort, many of them were in a situation of choice of their future behavior strategy: migrate or not. Full Russian exodus took place in Chechnya, Ingushetia, almost ending in Dagestan.
Interest for the work are the people who have a significant number of the SFD and the Stavropol region, but do not have administrative territorial units.
The Armenian diaspora. The Armenians are not the indigenous people of the NC, but their example can be examined clearly expressed diaspora model. Migrants make it possible to migrate to their relatives and friends, providing them with information on how to migrate funds to facilitate the move, as well as assistance in finding employment and housing. The migration of Armenians carried out selectively in economically favorable conditions and in the place of residence Russian - Krasnodar (the coast) and the Stavropol region (central region), Rostov region. Remittances sent by migrants to their homeland, for Armenia are an important source of finance.
The Armenian diaspora in the Black Sea coast has always been quite strong and there are at least 100 years. Today in the Krasnodar region registered 119 ethno-cultural community organizations, of which 42 - Armenian. In many cities (Armavir, Tuapse, etc.) the number of ethnic Armenians is great, in the Adler district of Sochi, they make up about one third of the population. Many of the residents in the province are Armenians - refugees or forced migrants from Karabakh, Azerbaijan, Chechnya, Abkhazia and Uzbekistan. However, the fertile territory of the Black Sea coast indicates the migration of Armenians as a thoughtful and purposeful. The difficult economic situation in Armenia itself triggered the influx of migrants, who naturally wanted to be closer to his compatriots, countrymen and relatives living in the prestigious and affluent areas.
Now the situation is changing. At the level of everyday communication more and more Armenians are divided into "us" and "outsiders" to the "new" and "old". If a man of Armenian descent, but he was a bad command of the native language (more speaks Russian), it is often his own. If, however, came 10-15 years ago, at home and speaks Russian in Armenian, the attitude is somewhat different. And this view is based not only on the local nationalists, the regional administration, representatives of the Cossacks, but also from conventionally called "the local Armenians." In addition, a large part of visitors were residents of rural areas, there are people of a lower cultural level, and worse than urban, and sometimes do not speak Russian.
It seems appropriate to note that sometimes the definition of "newcomer" (from traditionally living populations) are subject to all the Armenians, moreover, regardless of the actual length of residence (they recently moved, or have lived for a long time, or at all were born and raised in this region) - so the costs of migration are distributed to a wider group, rather than, in fact, the recent migrants. Thus, there is a risk of transformation in migrantophobia ethnophobia with negative perceptions (ethnostereotipe) of members of certain ethnic groups, which in turn leads to an escalation of tension and sometimes even the excesses of a negative character.
Greek diaspora. Also one of the closest people to their cultural peculiarities of Russian are the Greeks. The Greeks, who settled now in the NC, are mostly descendants of migrants at different times, left the Turkish and Iranian borders. With the appearance of Russian at the NC Greeks were actively involved in the adoption and strengthening of the Empire, especially the Black Sea. Greek diaspora has managed to create an effective trade through the Azov and Black Sea ports, but the national policy of the Soviet regime was changeable. Inside the diaspora can distinguish between several local groups, each of which has a certain, peculiar only to her complex cultural differences. These features are associated mainly with the economic and cultural skills, living habits, which are formed over the centuries in their places of resettlement1.
The Greeks of the NC speak on the Black Sea ("Pontic") dialect call themselves Ponty, Pontiac language (in the Russian version of Pontiacs, Pontiac language). Their identity is much more evident in comparison with other ethnic groups, the Greeks of Russia and adjacent states, as well as the culture of the peoples around them is quite dramatically different from their own. The reasons of the numerous migrations of the Greek Pontiacs are complex. There has been interweaving of economic and political circumstances. The desire of the Christian subjects of the Ottoman Empire to move to Russia, combined with the policy of the Russian government sought to colonize and economically captured and devastated earth of the NC. Despite all the difficulties that confronted the Greeks in the resettlement process and to adapt to a new place, they were able to join the economic and social life, forming a significant cultural center in the NC.
But the history of the Greeks in the NC was not as cloudless as existed in 1930 in the Kuban region the Greek national in 1938 was abolished, and the Greeks in 1944, were repressed in the Kazakh steppe. Since the early 1990s and a sharp deterioration in Georgia, Abkhazia, Central Asia, a significant number of Greeks migrated to the coast of the Krasnodar Territory and in the Stavropol region (central region). If in the Krasnodar Territory the number of Greeks remained fairly stable, in the Stavropol decline is due to the continued emigration to Europe and to the USA.
Unlike most of the repressed peoples Meskhetians not were allowed to return home from Uzbekistan to Georgia. After the Ferghana riots Meskhetian Turks partially settled in the Krasnodar Territory and Rostov Region. Compact settlement was a factor, constantly provoking ethnic tensions (Crimea area, Krasnodar territory). Policy of Krasnodar region guidance to oust this nation, and various discriminatory measures, the aggressive action of Cossack organizations and well-planned PR campaign of the U.S.A. has allowed a significant number of Turks (about 15 thousand people.) immigrated to America. Unlike the settlers of
Krasnodar, fate of Rostov’s Turks turned out differently, the reason - as the land for settlement. If the Crimean region of Krasnodar Region is fertile for agriculture, the Salsk steppes of the Rostov region differ quite uncomfortable conditions (strong winds, cold winters, hot summers, infertile soil), and always it was a poorly populated region.
Kazakh Diaspora. In the Astrakhan region has a Kazakh diaspora (the most numerous - 143 thousand people.). It is characterized by a ramified structure: in all rural areas where Kazakhs make up a significant proportion of the population is Kazakh national societies and schools. However, in its multiplicity, Kazakh diaspora is not conflict, in contrast to Dagestan and Chechnya, which are involved in almost all the mass inter-ethnic fighting.
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