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2.1. Common ethno-political situation.
For the pragmatic hand of the Russian Centre the heating of the ethnic factor in the country performs an instrumental function: it can prevent a social explosion of discontent by switching from the lower ranks of the ruling oligarchy to a more easily accessible destination - on national minorities. While all forms of democratic nationalism, suppressed or displaced to the periphery of the political space as a threat to the elite and its interests in the West, the Centre does not interfere, and sometimes contributes to the organizations' ethnocratic persuasion4. " Understanding with the ethnocracy allows Centre to count on votes of the lower social strata, which occasionally play off against ethnic minorities. Authorities also widespread support attempts to restore the Cossacks as a paramilitary guard, which is reminiscent of its use in pre-revolutionary period to suppress all of the same minority1.
In the USSR, representation of ethnic minorities in power was embedded in the institutional structure of the "collective leadership": for representatives of major ethnic groups and strategically important subjects of the Federation they guaranteed places in the Central Committee and Politburo of the Communist Party2, and it was not a purely formal position. Dismantling of the system of collective leadership and the transition to a presidential system "plebiscite" type (in the deprivation of the Parliament a real opportunity to exercise their functions and subsequent reduction of these functions themselves) meant for the abolition of guaranteed minority representation of their interests, which existed even if not on a democratic basis, and establishing " tyranny of the majority." Last vestiges of institutionalized representation of minority peoples in the federal executive authorities were liquidated in December 1993 by decree of President Yeltsin was repealed a provision that the heads of the governments of the republics - the Russian Federation in the post belonged to the federal government3. As for the electoral representation, then, as in the Yeltsin Constitution of certain forces in the parliament under normal conditions does not affect the composition of the executive authority for national and religious minorities, the struggle for seats in the Duma does not make sense at this point. It is suitable only as a way of penetrating to the "party of power", but it would not necessarily be elected to the Duma. And the government itself in this system performs almost exclusively on managerial functions, since most political power is concentrated in the presidential administration. The current asymmetry between the size and degree of participation of Caucasians in the ruling stratum of the Center is fraught with risk, since it contributes to their radicalization and use undemocratic means in pursuing of their interests.
The formula "Orthodoxy, Autocracy, Nationality", passing through the Soviet period, today modified the ideology of Russian-ness. Classical xenophobia with changing variations of nationalism with traditional anti-Westernism, anti-Americanism, anti-Semitism, in connection with the terrorist attacks gives growth to Caucasus Islamophobia, despite the fact that in reality, the terrorists show a kind of internationalism. On the other hand, although only a portion of institutionalized Russian ethnos (power structure) is involved in the fight against criminals is being touted as the state persecution of ethnic minorities, which further increases the hatred and alienation of Caucasians, and Russian.
Globalization of Russia, unfortunately, is an ideal prospect than reality. Ethnicity strengthens the identity of the field of Russian identity and the national question - the subject of political activity, although the social responsibility of transnational corporations, supranational bureaucracies are much lower responsibility of the national (republican) parliaments and governments4.
Implementation of ethnoemphazies tactics is facilitated by the vertical social and economic disparities at the ground level, because the reaction of the Russian population and Caucasians in crisis display markedly different. Extreme atomization and polarization among the Russian, especially in large cities, the destruction of family and social ties under the influence of income inequality is clearly contrasted with the stability of the Caucasian community. The representatives of Caucasian nations demonstrate the ability to mitigate the socio-economic disparities in its ranks, while maintaining the system of mutual aid and a kind of non-state social security. This inevitably raises suspicions in some parts of the Russian majority, which, despite the apparent advantages of its status, does not show the same ability to self-organize to protect their collective interests. And every aggravation of the situation in the country gives itself the possibility of the Centre to play in this lack of confidence in their own interests.
Ethno-cultural and political differences in Russia, apparently, do not overlap but reinforce each other. Caucasians, in addition to its original status, ethnic and cultural minorities are also in the permanent political minority. Among the leading political forces of today is not one that would not be purely pro-Western, but a consistent internationalist - a wide, namely the "Western" sense of the word. No less important is the fact that the lobby for regional interests (this is the main function of the deputies from the periphery of the Russian parliament) much easier, as a member of the pro-government faction. Hence - a distorted incentive system, whereby candidates from those regions where the population is against the "party of power ', are forced to seek to get it in its electoral lists, or in the respective groups and factions in the Duma after the election.
The situations where any kind of otherness is interpreted in terms of ethnicity, it always leads to ethnic conflicts1. Russia is a unique country in terms of ethnic diversity. Another thing is that here has its own feature associated with giving excessive importance of ethnicity, especially in the NC. This means that the population of the republics forced to live in the narrow and busy social field, spending most of the time and effort to reconcile the different and, above all, the national interests of ethnic groups. This fact is reflected in the growth of so-called protective nationalism, expressed in the distribution of ethnic groups traditionally resident anxiety in relation to the groups of "colonization" (primarily inoetnichnym). In particular, such a reaction of "traditional populations" is expressed in fear of habitual be forced to have living space, "the representatives of organized communities economically, densely filled a number of vital economic niches and displacing the indigenous population on the sidelines of life2."
For example, the trend toward a protest vote in the republics of the NC can be traced even in cases where the results of the election, according to a wide range of experts, were rigged3. Sometimes implausibly high percentage of votes for the candidates' party of power "in the most" unruly "regions, is not the least reason for speculation that the exorbitant figures reflect the real level of support for the federal government is exactly the opposite (of Ingushetia, the campaign" I did not vote "). In the political activities a management culture was receptive to the experience of nomenklature of the CPSU, that is, the puppet so-called minority position in relation to the majority was re-established4.
The refusal to rely on ethnoklanovye groups and other patron-client groups, with the Kremlin, would have created serious risks of destabilization of the situation. (The fact that the logic of the argument the federal government is such convincing evidence of the practice) 5. Has become a habit to support formally loyal Caucasian clans and client-patronage of the situation does not deter from its gradual descent into chaos. Politics warm friendship with the ruling elites in the interests of the North Caucasian illusory stability6 does not solve the problems of the Caucasus and, in fact, makes the NC territory to the frozen and potential conflicts. This policy has also led to the erosion of trust in the Center of the NC residents, many of which are not connected "train" with the clans and the expectations of the Russian ruling class at the archaic behavior, rather than from close to them ethnocratic clans.
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