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2. ETHNOPOLITICAL FACTOR.

In today's Russia, where the institutionalization of the ethnic factor is high, up to the state-administrative structure, ethnicity, thus acknowledged the explosive and yet the most widely accepted indicator of the legitimated cultural differences 1 . In addition, in recent decades, active construction of ethnicity by political and academic elites began: language differences, coupled with the construction of history and accentuation of religious differences helped to create a society where all people have turned to the only "representatives of a certain nationality2." In other words, artificially created a social phenomenon, when people are no longer seen as the workers or the unemployed, criminals and law-abiding citizens, the sick or healthy, alcoholics or drug addicts, etc., but the first (or only) as the Chechens, Russian, Kumyk. Thus, the "phantom" of ethnicity has become the main criterion of differences3.
In the ethnic policies of the NC there are several features:

1) multi-layered: the combination of elements of traditionalism (etatism, authoritarianism, anarchism, collectivism, and messianism, Islamism), of the Soviet past (idealism, leaderism, communist eschatology, barricade consciousness equality) and modernization (individualism, focus on success and competition, the market);

2) heterogeneity: the existence of many ethno-national, regional, religious, and other subcultures;
3) fragmentation: the fluidity, uncertainty, unstructured, incomplete, broken character rigs and
orientation;

4) conflict: the lack of basic consensus on several fault lines - the society and government, people and intellectuals, past, present and future.

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