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3.1. History of the Russian-Caucasian culture and secular education of the NC.

Caucasian society is a variety of cultural currents, each of which develops its own specific laws. The peoples of the Caucasian culture is rightly included in the constituent Russian peoples. They have left a deep mark in Russian history and culture, which could not serve its future prosperity, but also the initiation of Caucasians in the Russian language and Russian culture has a beneficial effect on the development of national culture, of the NC2 . In the Caucasian school became intensely penetrate secular subjects, and representatives of local intelligentsia began to actively advocate for the equal rights of peoples.

Tracing the history of the Russian-Caucasian contact since the second half of XIX century to end of XX century can make the conclusion that Russia, having achieved the inclusion of the territory of the NC in the Empire, did not put in the forefront only conquest, colonization, as many historians of the Soviet period is written3. The number of documents emanating from the highest Russian authorities, demonstrate a desire of Russia to involve all-Russian peoples of the NC's economic and cultural space, on the path to European civilization.

The result of the interaction of Western and Eastern cultures became a kind of "hybrid" of society4. A typical example is the NC which experienced during constant communication with the Russian influence spreading in the mountainous region the foundations of European culture. At the same time, it must be borne in mind that the Caucasian cultural type closer to the East, and a large part of Caucasians considers it a priority attributes of Muslim culture. Despite the ethnic diversity, language differences and cultural diversity, the population of the NC has historically been a community united by historical destiny, ethno-territorial contacts, domestic, economic and cultural ties, and the trend of peoples towards integration.

Culture of the NC was part of the All-Russian civilization space for two recent centuries. However, the deep influence of penetration into the local way of life of ethnic and cultural standards of Russian was not happen.

In contrast to the historiography of the Soviet period, treat the role of the Tsarist Caucasus exclusively negative, in particular as trampling on people's traditions and culture, surely it should be noted the positive role of Russia in the official initiation of mountaineers to the new cultural and educational space. Creating schools of various types, the authorities often went to meet the educational needs of the local population. This was reflected in the organization of schools at the request of local people in remote mountain villages, in the reconstruction of urban schools to schools with higher educational status, in a flexible combination of programs, secular and religious education in Russian schools, the establishment of hostels for children of the highlanders.

Prior to the formal accession to Russia the only form of education in the NC were the Arab-Muslim school (Maktab and madrasas) and Christian school in Ossetia. Educational programs of the Arab-Muslim religious schools included the disciplines of the cycle (Arabic, sharia, philosophy, logic) and the study of exact sciences (algebra, geometry, astronomy). Of the total number of Islamic schools that existed in the Caucasus in XIX century more than half were in the territory of Dagestan1. Religious schools as an important social function: in ethno-consciousness of people was formed the unit of literacy the prestige of knowledge and religious education. Muslim schools were free, relatively accessible, did not share the students' according to social status, were obligatory for all Muslims2.

At the same time, the confessional nature of the entire system of the Arab-Muslim school has become, by virtue of deliberate self-restraint, at times primitive teaching and hostility to the emerging alternative schools (secular schools), a significant obstacle to social adaptation of the Caucasian youth to new realities.

After joining the NC Russia has taken several measures to objectively contribute to a culture of the peoples of the mountainous region. One of the notable events was the opening of the secular schools3. In general, the organization of Russian institutions and secular schools was accompanied by the practical integration of the NC in the political, economic, cultural and educational environment of the Russian Empire4.

The first years the mountaineers did not seek to identify children neither in public urban school no in private. If the ratio of indigenous to the Russian in the traditional norms of communication remained generally loyal, attempts to draw the Highlanders in secular schools have met rejection of religion, which could be a powerful brake on the overall process of formation of the education system. The solution to this problem was the discovery in 1849 in Derbent, a Muslim school, which in early 1855 was transferred to the Temir-Khan-Shura. Students had the opportunity in addition to Arabic, to learn the Russian language. This is an important step on the difficult path of attracting Caucasians in new educational space5.

Since the middle of the XIX century appearance in the NC secular schools gradually began to take systematic. In 1856 at the initiative of the regimental doctor J.S. Kostemerovskogo in Lower Dzhengutae a school for children riders Dagestan Cavalry Regiment and the children of local residents was opened. In parallel with the execution of their professional duties Kostemerovsky played as active promoter of Russian letters, science and culture among the Highlanders6.

In creating of a network of schools of different types representatives of imperial authority were to meet the educational needs of the local population. It is noteworthy that the discovery of secular education in many cases have been initiated by the local population. Highlanders have requested an increase in the schools, contributed to their construction funds, materials, and personal work.

For the Russian government secular schools is an important aspect inspired by the socio-political integration of the NC in the Russian Empire. Secular schools, which have become a kind of civilizing a means of "pacifying" of the NC, and existed in parallel Muslim educational institutions were to strengthen the educational process in the mountainous region. At the same time in order to attract Caucasian youth in the Russian-speaking secular schools were introduced structural and programmatic elements of religious education: the basics of Islam and the Arabic language7.

In general, neither Russian nor the Arab-Muslim schools in its purpose, program content do not reflect the objective needs of development of education and culture of the peoples of the Caucasus. They could not serve as centers of culture and the dissemination of scientific knowledge among the masses. But objectively, they have contributed to the dissemination of basic literacy among the population.
The Russian government encouraged the secular education of mountaineers expressing their geopolitical interests1. To some extent, it could ensure social stability in the region. Directly involved in the origin of the Russian-speaking Caucasian intelligentsia, the Russian government saw it as a guarantor of stability and loyalty to the official authorities.

In turn, secular schools began to guide the mountaineers in a new cultural and educational world. If in the traditional forms of communication, the impact of Russian manifested at the level of material culture, the communication with Russian teachers of Russian language, studying of Russian language gave positive results in the development of spiritual culture of the highlanders2. With the creation of a secular education system they have made it possible for young people of the NC to obtain secondary and tertiary education, as well as continuing their education in various regions of Russia and abroad. The most significant role in introducing of young Dagestanis to European culture has played Stavropol High School, where in 1866, vacancies for children Highlanders were opened3.

Getting secular education will actually increase the social status of the mountaineer, has contributed to his participation in an emerging society of the Caucasian Russian intelligentsia. By the end of the XIX century on the NC the specialists with higher education began to appear among the local populations. Russian schools started to graduate teachers - Caucasians4. It was important for the development of public education. At the end of the XIX century teaching staff were prepared from the best graduates of the mountain schools. It had contributed to their adoption in schools, local adaptation, maintained continuity in educational practice5.

Noting the achievements in education, we cannot, however, conceal the fact that the Orthodox Russian elite did not agree with the strong position of Islam and the Arabic-language culture in the NC. This, in particular, is confirmed in studies on missionary work of the Orthodox Church. Straightforwardly this position is expressed by S.A.Razdolsky, who claims that "thanks to the missionaries natives have the opportunity to learn literacy in their native language. The adoption of Orthodox Christianity gives indigenous people the opportunity to enter in schools of St. Petersburg, Moscow, Kazan and other Russian cities6." This statement and the output of the Orthodox spiritual colonization of the Caucasus did not agree with the actual facts: the indigenous population of Dagestan, Chechnya, Kabarda which referred positively to the study of secular education and secular schools in the state of the Russian language in the area of spirituality did not allow compromise. In this is the phenomenon of cultural and educational development of the NC in the late XIX.: preserving spiritual values of Islam and adate-Muslim culture, the Caucasus, entered into a new quality of development, in all-Russian cultural space7.

Activities undertaken in the country during the Soviet era to the destruction of religious and ethnic traditions ( translation of writing from Arabic to Latin alphabet, then to the Cyrillic alphabet, the prohibition of Islamic schools, Islamic organizations constraint), eventually isolated the NC from the Muslim world8. This helped to accelerate the perception of the Russian-European culture. Throughout the Soviet era Russian culture strengthens its position in the NC as dominant9. As a result, during the XX century at the same time there were two different paradigms: the old, reflecting the relationship with the adate-Muslim ethnic group, and the new, emerging in the space of the Russian-European culture.
Level of higher education in the region, the mobility of ethnic North Caucasus have allowed them to significantly strengthen its role in a national life and politics, as evidenced by the presence of the national capital's offices. The region has seen progress humanities and their own professional culture. The scientific community of the NC is in search of evidence of ancient and unique people, their achievements, and this is reflected in the growing number of researchers of history, ethnographers, linguists1.

During the years of Soviet rule, despite all the troubles, political and intellectual elites of nations of NC were formed. A unified system of education, national education and training was focused on the formation of social -cultural unity of the country so that Muslims- Caucasians did not even arise and the thought of creating an Islamic state and the "reunification" with the Islamic world. It was due to the state program aimed at increasing cultural and educational level of the nationalities of the multinational country by integrating the "small people" in a single community - the "Soviet people."
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