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3.3. The discrepancy between the Russian and Caucasian cultures.
During the equalization national policy of the USSR large masses of the Russian population cut off from their places of permanent habitation, fell into an unfamiliar national environment, where were in a position of national minorities. Immigrants from Russia were often settled in towns (old and new), which were multinational. This led, on the one hand, to strengthen the international features in the life of society as a whole and on the other - known to the denationalization of Russian, the loss of many national traditions and culture. As a result, implemented in 1920 - 1950's transforms the Russian people by the time of the collapse of the Soviet Union in the degree of urbanization much aheaded many other nations. Russian nation has become the "city", "industrial".
In a cultural sense of the term "minority" has a positive sense, as claims the cultural values of ethnic, which must be confirmed in the dialogue of cultures and in some way protected. This is particularly important in relation to indigenous ethnic groups, to protect the cultural identity of which adopted the UN Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous People. Standards for the protection of cultural rights are established in the Constitution, the laws of language, education, culture of the peoples of the republics, which create legal opportunities for the development of ethnic identity.
In a multicultural society in the Russian ethnocentric management of republics "dominant" Russian culture, so important to upgrade, is sacrificed to the local cultural differences. Ideological disease 90s led to the fact that inter-ethnic relations in the NC were interpreted at all levels of government as an object of manipulation and bargaining between the groups of "ethnic officials and businessmen," "ethnic Muslims and Christians." This policy cannot stand their civilization militancy and colonial overtones. In its most aggressive forms it differs only in form of direct confrontation. The result is the spread of Islam and the rise of religion as a form of self-defense. This mechanism largely determines the content of the term "Caucasian ummah": it is a reactive sense of belonging to the oppressed minority - a feeling which seems to be not stable and loses its sharpness after a pass from another crisis.
Fanatical desire of Russian reformers at all costs "Europeanized" and "Americanize" Russia was as if specifically directed to the marginalization and hardening of the ethnic and cultural groups that did not fit the new standards. As soon as the Russian ruling class felt intuitively own slide to the periphery of the global system as compared to the Soviet era - from the economic, military, and especially the cultural and psychological point of view - it was trying to compensate for this inferiority by some fundamental claims, "civilization "superior to others in the global periphery, including the peoples of the NC.
Cultural space of the NC has been segmented to: the traditional type of North-Caucasian culture (consisting of numerous ethno -traditional cultures) and close to it by the value system of Islam, the Russian national (including the Cossack traditional culture), "Soviet" and the modern mass culture of the West. All of them are in a state of latent and open conflicts. It’s evident the tendency of weakening the dominant role of Russia, the secular culture in the NC and the growth of the struggle for replacement of its traditional culture, as well as various Islamic trends.
There are several reasons of the development process of the Russian and North Caucasian differences of culture: 1) the historical interaction of the Russian people and Caucasian ethnic groups that focused on the idea of the necessary financial compensation from the state of losses incurred by the Caucasian peoples. (This raises the opposition - a strong militarized empire (Soviet) center and the proud, free and slave force, but not reconciled peoples), and 2) a critical attitude to the modern Russian ("democratic") experience in the construction of the economy in the North Caucasus republics, and 3) the opposition of daily, strictly regulated cultural life of Caucasians and culturally marginal, degrading the Russian population." The efforts of the central Russian television stations contribute to the perception of Russian and their cultural values as being contrary to the fundamental bases of cultures of North Caucasian peoples.
Illustrative of paragraph number 1 is the recognition of certain human rights activist Lydia Graphova made up already by her according to results of "Chechen human rights campaign" in the mid-2000s: "We are guilty before Russian refugees from Chechnya. We are the whole human rights movement. It is our submission public sympathy for the Chechens retreated only. This is probably overrun of democracy to maintain a minority even at the cost of the majority discrimination ... And I must admit - we sincerely believed that they should give preference to them instead Russian. Because felt in front of them historical guilt for the deportation. Most human rights activists still hold this view. Personally, I have gradually feeling of guilt outweighed to the Russian. "
G. Hofstede Dutchman and a Frenchman D. Bollinzhe identified 4 parameters with regard to cultural organizations:
- The level of the hierarchy is the degree of inequality of men, which is recognized as a normal population of the country;
- The avoidance of uncertainty - is the measure in which people prefer structured situations in front of structurally disorganized;
- Individualism is an indicator of the extent to which people prefer to act as individuals rather than as members of organized groups;
- The degree of "masculinity" is a measure that, “masculine values" (belligerence, friendship, aggression), prevail over "feminine" (peace, peace, unexpencivity ).
This classification clearly shows the polarity of the Russian and Caucasian culture of the organization.
It must be acknowledged that at the beginning of the XXI century Russian speaking about their culture, just remember the past greatness. Tightly regulated process of ideological development of Soviet international culture provided unifying effect on the traditional culture. The Russian (Slavic) population of Russian and Soviet culture became almost synonymous.
Russian culture as such, by J. M. Gefter, does not exist. In fact, there is Russian-speaking culture,
"which, although it says in Russian ... but in general, is a cosmopolitan culture in Russia." "Culture, speaking in Russian, was formed ... not as a spokesman of separate ethnic group!2 " "There are people who call
themselves Russian. In fact, they are Russian of various origins, mixed - whether as a result of ethnic mixing types, either - "Russian Tartars", "Russian Estonians", "Russian Jews". Russian culture takes a special place in the country and the world "because of its cosmopolitanism, and love for diversity." Russian is a "super-
ethnos, which is compressed from all sides, cannot turn into ethnic group in the nation in the usual sense of the word." "Let a Russian to become a Russian - is to make him a man of a regional civilization, the highest cultural achievements is possible only in cosmopolitan mestizo6.”
An interesting fact was obtained in the study of Russian culture, living in the republics. As it turned out, they even express a greater zeal for loyalty to tradition, a sense of duty to family, fellow countrymen.
The relationship to the Russian Caucasus strongly influenced by self-identification and self-Russian themselves: the more stable it is, the higher the "degree of respect"7 of Caucasians. At first glance this may seem paradoxical, because everyone knows the traditions of honoring the Caucasian peoples. On the other hand, it is quite understandable. For example, most Caucasians negatively perceived liberal tendencies of Russian culture from the era of perestroika. Significantly, which is not or what is like to have. When the Russian see as Caucasian traditions and customs are revered and passed, they wonder why we do not it have?
There is an inconsistent situation. On the one hand, Russian, feeling of something their infringement, they want to be in the status of the majority group. On the other hand, to enhance a sense of security when they do not have hope to state, they want to have something like a family and tribal associations that exist among Caucasians, that these clans are represented their interests (hence the importance of ethnic group). That is, the Russian wish to receive "bonuses" and as the status of the majority, and as of minority.
To a large extent this provision in the Russian republics, due to the fact that they are there in the "second-rate people," as it is, twice: the status of the Russian people is not legally enshrined at the federal level and in the national republics Russian is "non-titular nation" should be treated as national minorities . This is despite the fact that the bill "On the basis of public policy in the sphere of interethnic relations in the Russian Federation" (the law was not adopted) clearly states that "representatives of the Russian people cannot be treated as national minorities in Russia."
Russian are forced, in order to absolve themselves of social pressure to the titular ethnic groups, mainly the Islamic religion, a mimic local people - either externally, or even accepting Islam. For example, a few Russian population, preserved in Chechnya, is rapidly "checheniziruetsya," according to the source of the North Caucasus news agency in Grozny. "I saw these Russian. They became Chechen ( ochechenilis). And most of the Chechens alike, than the Chechens themselves, "- said the source. As for the Orthodox believers living in the capital, then, according to a source, a local Orthodox parish has more than 20 people. "On holidays, as they say, above 50 people gather together." According to I. Tabatskovoy, visited at Easter Grozny (04.04.2010), "except for the actual celebration of Easter, Easter week the rest the Orthodox cathedral in Grozny has been closed."
Russian culture and challenge the group in Russia. One of them comes from those persons who refuse to assimilate and still is, true spiritual values, customs and culture of their native peoples, and transmits them from generation to generation. Russian, as a rule, or do not want to assimilate migrants Caucasians, or encounter difficulties in trying to do this and extent to which some Caucasian people want to assimilate, remains unclear. This phenomenon is most noticeable among Caucasians - Muslims (only Ossetians in the NC are Christians).
On the NC happens today protest the "Russian mass culture" that has a targeted duplication of the "primitive values," with the dominance of entertainment. By a strict upbringing Caucasians metabolize negative attitude to the use of alcoholic beverages, to the lungs intersexual relations. For example, "alcohol" is transformed into the Caucasus in the public mind an inevitable attribute of customs, traditions, rules of etiquette of Russian. But the protest is formed not only in the sphere of mass culture, because the factory in Grozny court has decided to withdraw the 58th volume of the Great Encyclopedia, published by "Terra", which, in his opinion, contained an article about extremist Chechnya and Chechens (06.04. 2010). The trial was initiated by the Ombudsman in the Chechen Republic N. Nukhazhiev with the prosecution of the republic on the fact of publication in the 58th volume of materials that distort the history of Chechnya and wearing libelous character, according to "RBC" refers to the press service of the Chechen Ombudsman.
The staff of the Academy of Sciences of the Chechen and historians was as experts in the court. They called the material in the Great Encyclopedia about Chechen people "provocative," "insulting," "ideological," containing "one-sided interpretive historical and contemporary facts of history" which, according to experts, "forcing the reader to anti-Chechen sentiment contributes to fomenting ethnic hatred in Russia".
According to the lawyer Murad Musaev, represented the plaintiff, the Chechens are presented in the material encyclopedia, as "bloodthirsty barbarians who can only robbery and banditry," and while not a word about the "heroic deeds of the Chechens, who defended Russia." Party of respondent didn’t come to a court despite notice. Later the court's decision will be sent to the Ministry of Justice of Russia to include the 58th volume of the Great Encyclopedia of the federal list as extremist materials. In the apparatus of the Ombudsman hopes that this example of "push to the top of the trials and other published materials, insulting the honor and dignity of the Chechen people and inciting ethnic hatred."
One of the leading specialists in Oriental, Alexei Malashenko explains the situation, "in terms of historical and philosophical confrontation between the two socio-cultural systems (Russian and Chechen), and their mutual and permanent exclusion is inevitable. There was no peace in Chechnya, nor in a political system ... Chechnya it seems, will always be strikingly different from the Smolensk region, or the Maritime Territory. And so one day it will gain its independence, and, God forbid, to the borders with Russia was one friendly state1. "Russian was the link that has integrated people into a single socio-cultural space of the Russian Empire and the Soviet Union, bringing the ethnic periphery of the new state law and guidelines.
Modern ethno-cultural processes in the NC are characterized by instability, inconsistency of the interaction of the traditionalist, fundamentalist and modernization alternatives. It can become a cultural legitimation, as the weakening and strengthening the position of Russia on its southern borders in the challenges of globalization and geopolitical transformations.
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