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3.5. The role of language.

Language as a factor in the integration of different nations is second only to religion,because there is the lack of competence in another language and, consequently, in other aspects of culture leads to an exaggeration of the psychological differences between people. This is, perhaps, today remains one of the few signs of indirect presence in mono-ethnic Russian republics . Caucasian peoples belonging to different linguistic groups, communicate also with one another in Russian, - the language of interethnic communication. One can identify two trends: bilingualism (the use of native and Russian), linguistic assimilation (using the Russian language as the primary means of intra-communication in families of indigenous people).

No time for an illiterate farmer in any part of the Russian Empire, the language of his fathers was a natural and unique. But with the advent of large cities, railroads, and modern education situation has become complicated. For Ukrainians, Tatars and Georgians, who fled his village, it was not enough to know only their native language, to come out in large imperial world. The growth of population mobility increased the "imperial" role of the Russian language and at the same time multiply the number of those who were forced to use it without being a natural medium. Ignorance or poor knowledge of Russian language was a barrier to social advancement, to which all representatives of Great-increasing number of ethnic groups. Life is put them in front of the necessity of choosing (or compromise) between native and Russian.

The upgrade of the national languages, artificially inflated during the ethnic mobilization and sovereignty has led to a noticeable decline in the prestige of the Russian language and elements of the all-Russian culture. At the same time a social need in the Russian language as the language of science, culture, education, market economy and international communication remained at the same high level.

Priority of the Russian language on the NC is determined mainly by political reasons, gradually led to its dominance in all spheres. In the Soviet period there was a significant decrease in the viability of ethnolinguistic minority of ethnic groups, which led to linguistic assimilation of their parts. Mastering the Russian language by minor people reflect a strategy of individual mobility, the desire to integrate into the dominant group and thus acquire a positive social identity. With 90 in all republics of NC have been made significant efforts to revitalize the traditional languages. The struggle for independence began with the movement for the revival of the national language. Deep connection between language and ethnic identity is found even in an attempt to highlight the new identity, constructed at the present time on the basis of a common language - "Russian nationality" in post-Soviet diaspora. Only the entry into Russia still holds the Cyrillic alphabet for the national languages. For example, with the emergence of independent Ichkeria, was an attempt to transfer the Chechen language to Latin. Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Turkmenistan and Uzbekistan have replaced the Cyrillic alphabet to Latin, and Persian-speaking Tajikistan borrowed the Arabic script.

All these movements were purely political, and their immediate task was to reduce dependence on the power of the Republican Union center, and the final - at the exit of the republics of the Soviet Union. "The collapse of the Soviet Union - emphasizes M.N. Guboglo - began with mobilized lingvitsizm thanks to which languages of titular nationalities were elevated to the status of official languages, virtually blocked the access of non-titular population in the offices of power and contribute to the achievement of three outcomes: forced neokorenizatsiya of administrative apparatus, the formation of ethnocratic regimes in former Soviet republics, and finally, disintegration of the USSR. "

The role of Russian as a language of interethnic communication is reduced. Against this background, the intensification of Islam, with some areas of Dagestan, has already begun a gradual process of capturing by the Arabic language of this niche. Following the dynamics of migration and the edges of the SFD is a change in the educational process of high school - the emergence of courses of study languages in the NC, where earlier it was not.

And yet, in some republics the Russian language remains the language of communication between peoples. Only in Dagestan have several dozens of languages
1) Caucasian languages.
- Dagestani branch.
- Avar-Ando-tsezskaya group (Avar, andiytsy, botlihtsy, godoberintsy, karatintsy, ahvahtsy,
bagulaly, Tyndall, chamalaly, tsezy, ginuhintsy, gunzibtsy, bezhtintsy, hvarshiny).

- Lezghin group (Lezgins, Tabasarans, Aguls, Rutuls, Tsakhurs, Kryz, buduhi, hinalugi, archintsy, Udi).

- Dargin language (Dargins, kaytagtsy, Kubachins).
- Lak language (Laks).
- Nakh branch.
- Chechen language (Chechens akkintsy).
2) Kipchak group of Turkic languages (Kumyks, Nogai).
3) the Iranian group of Indo-European languages (results).

Language as an ethnodivision sign of respect Russian and Caucasians relationship increases its value. Caucasians are usually bilingual and have good command of Russian, but most of them recognize the importance of language as an ethnic indicator. As in the public sphere, as well as in everyday life you hear more often the native language every year. Without exception, all national organizations consider language a significant factor, emphasizing ethnic differences, and the threat of losing their native language is considered as one of the most acute problems of its people.

There are a lot of evidence that between language and ethnic identity there is closely interrelated: the use of language influences the formation and maintenance of group identity and group identity affects the patterns of language use and preferences. Very often, the language has a great influence on the ethnic identity of adolescents from ethnically mixed families: many of them choose, depending on the nationality of the mother language or even a "third" language - the language of instruction. It happens that in some situations, members of ethno-linguistic groups increasingly identify themselves with those who speak the same language with them than with those with whom they share a common origin and culture.

Common Language is one of the main elements of the nation and cementing civic identity, it is possible even more important than ethnicity. The state has the right to demand that newly arrived immigrants have studied the Russian language, as well as adhere to basic norms and rules prevailing in the host community. The weakening of a national loyalty, which is expressed in an underestimation of the social significance of the Russian language and official bilingualism, the reevaluation of the ethnic language, confusing guidance of the general public devalues the installation of more high-status role of Russian language at the state level and on the national common-Russian space.
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