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4.1. The Islamization of the NC.
At the heart of the highly successful state of the Prophet Muhammad was lying propaganda of the new doctrine, which was associated with almost all of functions of this State. And such an Islamic state was originally built on a fundamental ideological platform.
Recognizing the importance of ethnic, cultural and other differences among the Russian Muslims, should take into account the context in which the idea of All-Russian Muslim community finds the absolute reality. Islam is often seen as an integral component of spiritual and ethnic cultures of indigenous peoples. Moreover, he declares a factor that can integrate disparate nations and peoples together, because Islam is always over nations and government entities, and ideology. But, in fact in life is completely different, as are many other factors intervene in the first place, economic and "political expediency" that force to move away from solving problems, using the Islamic factor and Muslim identity of the peoples of the region.
In the NC Islam has always played the social and catalytic role, particularly at crucial periods. Among them there were the national liberation movements under the leadership of Imam Mansur (1785-1791.) Imam Shamil (1834-1959) uprising and abrechestvo (1866-1916) . Revolution and civil war in Russia (1917 - 1920.) separate deportation of North Caucasian peoples (1944-1957) events to "restore constitutional order" (1994-1996) and finally, "anti-terrorist campaign" (October 1999 - present time).
In the history of the Caucasian people repeatedly became the banner of religion, both national and social protest. During Caucasian War of the XIX century the national liberation movement took place under the slogan of creating a Muslim state in the Caucasus - Imamate. The ideology of the movement was muridism - North Naqshbandiyya variation of the Sufi Order, was brought to the region by preachers from Central Asia and Iran in the early XIX century. At the same time, Sheikh Kunta-Haji Kishiev extensioned in Chechnya Sufi Order Kadiriyya (from Asia Minor), advocated a peaceful resolution of the problems with the metropolis.
During the Civil War, representatives of both tarikats (orders) were made against the Soviets (uprising led by Uzun Haji Imam Saltinskogo and N. Gotsinskogo). In Soviet times, even after suffering large losses (in the late 20s - 30s almost all the mullahs were arrested, many of them were shot, closed all mosques), Sufi Tariqa continued their activities. Many party and state officials continued secretly to perform religious rites. During the Chechen crisis, representatives of one and the same Tariqa could be on opposite sides. In particular, members of Tariqa Kadiriyya sided J. Dudayev. Some of them also supported the Wahhabi trend in the Chechen crisis.
Bursts of Islamization in the NC have historically coincided with major wars and uprisings against Russian domination. These conflicts began as a struggle for territory and resources, and mobilizing the start at the grassroots level were initially ethnocultural, and religious factors then. The spread of Islam and sometimes its imposition by military and political leaders (from Sheikh Mansur to Dudayev's) followed ethnic mobilization, but not vice versa. In this context, the expansion of Islam (and the borrowing of his "pure" forms in the Arab world) was used, primarily, the implementation of worldly goals, not much different from the burst of religiosity in most of the other warring states. However, during the protracted conflict (and this includes all the major military actions of the Centre in the NC), the process of Islamization took on its own internal logic and dynamics, and the differences between "traditional" and "borrowed" forms wasted to the wayside. In particular, the separatist government of G.Dudayev in Chechnya appeared on a purely secular basis of the socio-cultural and political protest, especially antinomenklature and only after anti-Moscow orientation, it has evolved in the direction of "Islamism" but with the increasing military pressure from the federal government. It’s rightly to belief that the invasion of the federal forces in Chechnya in December 1994 was the main impetus for the current stage of Islamization of the NC,( and then to spread Islamic radicalism and the emergence of regional militant envoys from Arab countries. This question gives better understanding of the current dynamics and prospects of the North Caucasian Islam. For example, you cannot say with certainty how deeply rooted the current process of "re-Islamization" of the region, and in what direction events would be unfold if the federal government abandoned its brute power politics in the NC.
The profound differences in the extent and characteristics of Islamization, situational and instability of its concrete manifestations are largely determine the nature of relationships between groups of Russian Muslims and the prospect of gaining their subjectivity as a social and political force. In this sense, any scholar of Russian Islam is interested not only short-term deals with the dynamic object exposed to a wider context. The key issue here is the degree of self-identification of Caucasian Muslims with their co-religionists in the All-Russian community (umma). The concept of nation-wide ummah itself non-undoubtedly and belongs to a highly developed forms of Islam in the context of "nation states".
Religious picture which most scholars of the 1990s - early 2000s presented in the conditioned radical light in 2011, gave his own and very viable seeds. Only occasionally the view of sociologists who claim that a significant proportion of the population of the NC was radicalized, deny the individual studies. For example, the results of a poll conducted by Madina Bogatyryova in August and September 2007 in the republics of Dagestan and Ingushetia.
The author investigated the intensity of the religious life of the respondents on the following criteria: faith in God, visiting the mosque, reading the Koran, the commission of mandatory and optional (Sunnah) prayers, the observance of mandatory and optional (Sunnah) of posts, etc. The results have shown that allegations of "alienation from Islam because of the general negative background "are unfounded. For example, in Dagestan Muslims consider themselves to be 98.5% of total respondents. 0.1% identify themselves as Orthodox. In Ingushetia, Muslims constitute 99.5%, Orthodox consider themselves 0.4% of the respondents. The percentage of non-believers in Dagestan - 0.3%, in Ingushetia - 0.1%.
At the end of the study the member of the Institute of Social and Political Studies of RA of S makes the now typical conclusion: "There are a lot of problems, mainly reducible to the lack of education of Muslims in understanding some important principles of beliefs. It is vacuum formed in education of the Muslim of studied regions considered and generated a lot of problems in the NC and in Russia as a whole. Therefore the development of a uniform standard in the field of Islamic education should be a top priority in the activities of those agencies that deal with religious tolerance. It is important to keep this issue so-called the median line, which would allow to find the common ground between ideologically conflicting parties. "M.
Bogatyreva characterizes the situation in the NC is as a total Islamization with the elements of the underground radicalization.
In some areas (for example, and Gergebilskom and Tsumadin regions of Dagestan) Shura - councils of mosques and their imams often control the activities of rural gatherings, and sometimes the local
administration. In secondary schools, a mandatory course of "History of Islam," was introduced covering Islamic history of the Caucasus, electives on the Arabic language are working, for which teaching Muslim scholars - Ulama are admitted. There are free instruction courses on Islamic studies in hundreds of madrassas in the mosques. Their graduates can continue their education in the Muslim universities of the Arab countries and Turkey.
Today, Islam in Russia has three main trends - traditionalism, modernism and Renovationism. Under traditionalism often understand tarikatizm (Tariqa - Sufi brotherhoods). In the North-East Caucasus (Dagestan, Chechnya and Ingushetia), Islam spread in the form of Sufism, presented a Tariqa Naqshbandiyya, kadiriya and shazaliya, providing spiritual, cultural and political influence. The positions of these tarikats in the region remain strong, as if conserving religious identity. Historically, the Islamic community of NC did not have a single center was a set of dozens of nations who have adopted Islam in different times and in different forms. Unlike the Muslims of the Volga, professing one branch of Islam (Hanafi Madhhab Sunni) Muslims of the NC profess different directions of Islam: Sunni, Shafi'i school (its professed mainly Chechens, Ingush and most part of Dagestani) Hanafi school (peoples of Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay- Cherkessia, Adygeya) and Shia Islam - only in Dagestan (Lezgins). It’s for the so-called traditional ways of Islam.
It's safe to say that the map the spread of Islam in Russia corresponds to the geographical spread of ethnohistorical media in our country, however, the degree of Islamization is different. Talk about a common center of Islam in Russia is not necessary, and there is no unified strategy among Russian Muslims. Some researchers give the Islamization of self-importance, while others are more inclined to consider it as one of the manifestations of the same etnizm of Islamism and even called "camouflage" of nationalism. However, it is impossible to deny that the discourse of a number of Islamic organizations, at least at the level of declaration, the religious and doctrinal component clearly prevails over the separatist nationalist 3 . In particular this applies to all kinds of construction projects in the Caucasus or the inclusion of an independent theocracy in this area even more extensive education relevant sense.
The use of rigid and dogmatic military force against other supporters of the Salafis showed the Islamic transformation of society that such a fate eventually awaits them if they will act the same way, in opposition to the existing regime. In addition, they realized that the official clergy associated with the interests of the new local elites, there would be only the ideological and political force, he would have to deal with a different branch of Islam, expressing interest in an extreme form of opposite social classes. Tarikatskoe clergy, pursuing essentially the same ultimate goal as their opponents-neovahhabity - the establishment of an Islamic state, is trying to reach her now legally to the best of all possible ways of entry into power. At the same time it seeks to strengthen its socio-political influence, to more clearly indicate that its presence in the life of the republics.
Mobilization, intellectual, organizational and financial resources of the Sufi orders are huge. Their politicization is already a fact. In the current unstable socio-political situation in the Caucasus, in the actual absence of a clear ideology of the Center, it is fraught with the radicalization in the near future and tarikatists Islam. Spontaneity of Islamization of the NC, which is a defensive reaction to the response to an explicit confrontation with the Centre means that many Muslims of this region live or in a local, isolated from the world-wide perspective, or refuse to identify themselves with Russia as a state, and thereby deny their own identity to the potential All-Russian umma.
The Islamic factor is often used as an ideological and organizational shell for the realization of practical interest not subjects or forces of the Islamist political and social action. Political engagement of Islam is described as loyal to the actions of the authorities, "the official clergy," and use religion for their own purposes by radical Islamists - neovahhabits who are in opposition to the government. Islam in Russia - it is a question of a strategic nature and it is directly related to state security.
An important role in the revival of Islam in Russia has played a mosque as a center of propaganda, propagation and popularization of the doctrine. The mosque in Russia, as in musulsman world - it's not just a religious temple, but also social (socio-political) center, which plays an important role in the social life of the district, the city where it is located. The number of mosques in Russia over the past 20 years has increased tenfold. In Tatarstan, its more than 1,100, in Bashkortostan - 470, in Chechnya - 465, Ingushetia - 300, in Dagestan - more than 2,000 (in 1989 - 27). Mosques play a dual role in the politicization and radicalization of Islam on the one hand, they have become a real force to influence political processes in Russia, on the other hand neovahhabity used them for adoption and spread of their ideology. When the President and Prime Minister of the Russian Federation visit republics of the NC, in particular in Chechnya, set at the central mosque is already included in the official program of the visit.
The religious factor in ethno-political processes in the North Caucasus macro-region forms a special environment of inter-group interaction, which is affected by not only the confessional, but also intra-relationships, which makes the possibility of intra-contradictions, determined the religious factor. A special place here is one of the challenges posed by the situation of religious pluralism, namely, that by itself is
insufficient religious pluralism in a more religious spaces in which the process of aggregation of the elites and the masses of the ethnic and religious grounds, as there are social actors who seek to establish their own identity, and also legitimized by religion. Given this, we can conclude that the significant impact of Islamic religious factor on the development of ethno-political processes in the NC, most likely will persist for the foreseeable future. And as proof, attention is drawn to the result of surveys of parents in connection with the introduction of courses in schools or the foundations of religious culture, "secular ethics". In the Russian regions of Russia for the RCA course favored only 20 percent of the parents and in the Chechen Republic for the "Basics of Islam" - 99 percent.
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