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4.2. Religious revival - as a phenomenon of demodernization.
The process of modernization in all spheres of public life is accompanied by a number of negative events, such as material separation, the decline of morality, crime, attitudes to the family institution, which are factors of destabilization of socio-political development. This situation helps to activate the subjectivity of traditional social institutions such as religious organizations, which has considerable expertise and resources of spiritual and moral education. Removal of pre-existing prohibitions and restrictions on worship activities of religious organizations and the involvement of citizens that resulted from the democratization of public life in Russia was one of the key factors in changing the political subjectivity of religion. The country has been an intensive process of revival of religion, which is accompanied by a growing number of religious groups, both traditional and nontraditional religious movements, gradually the process of restitution - the "religious image" is widely used as individual politicians and political organizations.
Known theories of modernization, despite their stylistic differences come from the general evolutionary theory of progressive development of society. The collapse of the Soviet Union brought back to life events that religious experts call the "rebirth of spiritual life," supposedly always been present among the inhabitants of Russia, despite the brutal repression by the authorities and the dominant ideology. It would seem that confirmation of this thesis were attempts to introduce Sharia rule and a new order, including standards of conduct for women, let alone officially permitted polygamy in the NC. In Dagestan, Chechnya, Ingushetia, began to appear female figures with closed faces, symbolizing the restoration of the lost of traditional norms. Universal TV reports have shocked the public with execution for adultery committed by the verdict of the Sharia Court.
A specific feature of post-Soviet Russia, as NC and the central part the so-called religious regression is a return to the past with all the trappings of religious activity. The situation in question does not fit into the context of modernization. Despite the secular nature of the Russian state, the incorporation of religion into politics is a very stable trend, rendering it all the more impact and the current process is not simply a return to Orthodoxy and Islam, as a separate wave of segregation of the Russian people. The revival of religion is the phenomena of global, but they are most clearly manifested in the cultural approval of Christianity and Islam, and those calls that they give up the separation of Russia
"Modernization" is identified with the Euro-American model of development, and the last - to Christianity. Accordingly, the Russian Orthodox Church has gained almost official privileged status of the public system. Thus, the arrows of historical clock in relations between the state and the church with a characteristic scale in Russia were transferred back to the days of almost Romanov tsarist regime. Officially, the process was launched in October 1990 when the Supreme Soviet of USSR adopted the law "On Freedom of Conscience and Religious Organizations", which guaranteed the equality of all citizens regardless of their religion, abolished the ban on religious propaganda, i.e. it was allowed not only the free exercise of faith, but its preaching, private forms of religious education, including special education. Religious organizations received the status of legal persons.
It's safe to say the almost complete absence in the Russian modernist reform processes in the mind of the titular priests. They openly declare their victories in the possibility of formally teach in secular institutions such as schools, the army, with their religion (Orthodox Christianity and Islam), and all the accompanying paraphernalia have not been changed for several hundred years. Sequential restoration of traditional norms was quite noticeable, if not the main obstacle to the modernization of society. Religion today preserves the primitive form of social relations, serves as a deterrent to social change, which manifests itself in the administration of sharia courts, interference with religious leaders in the management of the republics: "Sharia courts - Religious constant inherent in a society where the dominant religion is Islam." Sharia courts set up in the 90s and existing today in many villages of Dagestan and Ingushetia and Chechnya, could not and cannot cope with rising crime. Paradoxically, precisely in those areas where these courts focus, the criminal situation is most intense.
Here is a typical example of how quickly and deeply religious come into the lives of ordinary people: "... the chief physician of a large hospital in Makhachkala told how in the evening last secretary general of the Soviet Union appeared on TV screen and said that it is necessary to allow the opening of workplace prayer rooms, and in the morning at the hospital it was already open. Hospital staff never removes caps or scarves - this is the case when the Muslim dress code coincides with the requirement of Medicine. If an employee believes is guilty and promises that it will never happen again, he certainly believes he is greater than the unbeliever, for a Muslim knows that cheat or do not contain the word - it is a sin. Surgeons begin the operation with the words "BismiAllah" as a believer surgeon feels an enormous responsibility before Almighty Allah and it is very important today, when practically guilt or omission of a doctor is very difficult to prove ... ". But no less impressive are the numerous examples of how the officials of central Russia on his official acts proactively receive the blessing of priests.
Today in the NC there are no virtually social organizations that would oppose Islamization, considering it a negative phenomenon. It is not even Islamophobia, but only on incorrect supporters of Islamic norms, in contrast to secular law and morality. In Chechnya, Ingushetia and Dagestan, the local pro-Russian government openly supports the processes of Islamization and tries to improve the comfort of living for its citizens-Muslims, in fact, legalizing polygamy by typing in the schools to teach Islam, and forbidding contrary to his religion entertainment. From these positions even a rivalry starts between the republics - "Who lives by the Koran more." Rural male population, including young people, following their religious duty, they pray five times a day and only in the mosques. In the mosques they discuss all the news of the local and non-local nature it has become a center of political enlightenment.
Similar phenomena are characterized by lack of competence of the North's own society, who wanted to get out of the existing Russian system, which in itself is spread out in a period of radical transformation. That part of the borrowing, which is clearly not accepted in this society and shared its population over a long period of norms and values can be called as demodernization. Those for the NC are the European standards, even though they established themselves in the deformed forms of the Soviet regime and coexisted with the so-called traditional institutions and values. Although, as Gabriel Gakayev and Sergei Arutyunov noted, the Caucasian community includes both a fair share of "values", tentatively called "Asian", if other relate primarily rules and customs associated with Islam.
But the main problem for the past treatment standards and borrows - is the refusal of society in his own work and to those innovations that are generated primarily local details. Demodernization state is due to the fact that although the North Caucasian society, and can overcome the post-Soviet crisis, but it is unable to do so without external assistance.
Another feature of demodernization is the general state of apathy of population and neglect of people's ideas of nation-building. A well-developed network of corruption, cronyism, and, as valor - embezzlement of budget (general) funds - are nothing more than a protest of the state, with religious ideas serve as a universal salvation from ills of conflict.
Of course, any society cannot be guaranteed of a return to past religious norms, but the situation of demodernization - this is not necessarily a return or backward movement. It may also be an invention or adoption of inappropriate projects and regulations that currently exist in other societies (Arab countries). The religious revival may well exist in the context of the latest technologies and use their services, for example, means an individual controlled explosion, including as a part of the technology of jihad.
Unfortunately, the way out of demodernization is extremely difficult. Social evolution has always some kind of "progressive" direction, also religious revival in this category have never been experienced before, if only not to rethought and later reborn as a new religion.
According to many in the Center, one of the major problems of Russian Muslims is the issue of improving religious education, with which you can get rid of a number of costs in the religious and political life. Meanwhile, with the complicity of the Centre and without it, the process of strengthening the influence of Islam in various areas of public policy and public life, of the NC as well as the process of increasing the number of people who are trying to observe religious precepts.
It is safe to predict that the lobbying of direct process "Islamization of the law" completely loyal to the center by everyone recognized Traditional forces will increase4. It serves as a reward for war with the radicals. Most often, the assertion of Islam in the NC, in whatever form it manifested itself, means to deny the influence of Russian culture on local society, politics and morality. Such a revival - it's not the rejection of modernity, and the rejection of orthodoxy and Russian-ness. This is a declaration of cultural independence from Russia, a proud statement: "we will be Muslims, and are not going to like you." It is not occasion that in the Caucasian social consciousness there is a public opinion that for the tragic religious events of the13-14th October 2005 in Nalchik, you should not use the term "religious terrorism": on all grounds it is an act of armed rebellion or with signs of civil war.
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