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4.4. Religion and the Russian army.

The newspaper "Arguments of the Week" put a note on the subject, stating: "The ultra-Orthodox Hasidic Federation of Jewish Communities of Russia (FJC) has appointed the first" military rabbi "- a citizen of Israel Aaron Gurevich. The appearance of the first rabbi in the Russian army was preceded by a meeting of first deputy chairman of the Government of the Russian Federation Dmitry Medvedev with the leadership of FJC and one of two chief rabbis of Russia, Boris Lazar (according to the FJC). The Russian Orthodox Church, of course, they reacted critically.

The site of the Synodal Department for Relations with the Armed Forces immediately published an interview of the main military priest of ROC Father Michael (Vassiliev). He complained that Israeli soldiers prevented regularly Orthodox communicate with the priests. Moreover, they seem to regularly come to the rabbis and the incline to get circumcised by going to Judaism. According the words of A. Gurevich, "... in the Russian Army there are 40 000 Jews, some of the soldiers and officers have not realized yet their affiliation to the Jewish people. I'm trying to help them to feel Jewish."

The results of many cited in the present case studies and forecasts on the study of the demographic situation in Russia agree that Russia has the rapid growth of Muslim population. Islam permeates many spheres of social and political life is no exception and the army, from the beginning of democratization, greater freedom in religious soldiers and officers began to speak openly about their commitment to Islam. The presence of large Russian population the Muslim enclaves, the impact on their neighboring Muslim States have contributed to strengthening the Islamic component in the military policy of Russia. Matters spiritual and moral education in school and the army are under very close scrutiny of religious leaders in Russia.

At the residence of the President of Russia in Barvikha July 21, 2009 meeting of the President, DA Medvedev and the leaders of the religious traditions of Russia took place. The theme of attention became the head of the country's problems of teaching at schools, the foundations of religious culture and secular ethics and the introduction in the Armed Forces of the Russian Federation the Institute of military and naval ministers of church. Islamophobia, to some extent presents in the Russian army. It is exacerbated by the fact that some Russian politicians and ideologues in the confessional nature of Russian statehood focus on Orthodoxy. Leaders of Russian nationalists appeal for the creation of military units on an ethnic basis, to the formation of the Orthodox army. At the same time in the speeches of some Muslim political and religious leaders of Russia is seen as hostile to Islam's imperial power. Both are threatened to another country's internal stability, cohesion and control of its armed forces. Obviously, the problem of "Islam and the Russian army" becomes more relevant and politicized.

As indicated above, the meeting a chairman of Russia muftis Council mufti sheikh Ravil Gainutdin expressed full support to the efforts of the state in the name of strengthening the defense capability of the army, as well as his efforts on the spiritual and moral education of military personnel and the younger generation: "We believe by working with the Ministry of Defense, we will be able to create the model the institution of military clergy, which will serve the interests of state and society. We hope that in the case of introduction into the Russian Army Institute of military chaplains will be protected right to freedom of religion, will not be infringed upon their religious feelings and will not be forgotten that in the army there are soldiers of different nationalities and faiths".
According to Waliullah Hazrat Yakupov , "in recent years they see an increase in people's religiosity, and the recruitment of young people growing number of faithful citizens, in practice, performing the rites and prescriptions. As we know, Islam is welcomed to military service, DUM RT in their daily activities encourages young people to serve in the armed forces and protect their own homeland. At the same time in the media and in communicating with end-of-term military conscription exaggerated facts of manifestations of bullying, prejudice the rights of persons openly practicing the religious worship.

Changing approaches to the acquisition, with the connivance of individual commanders, leads to the fact that soldiers of different ethnic groups trying to impose their own order in military units," - said the chief military prosecutor Sergei Fridinsky during the coordination meeting of the agencies in March 2011.

According to data publicized on many sites, during the first two months of 2011 in the Armed Forces (AF) of Russia were reported 500 violent crimes, which resulted in more than 20 soldiers were seriously injured and two - were killed. In the past 2010 every tenth crime was committed out of mercenary motives, and the number of extortion, as compared with 2009 increased almost 1.5 times. The most unfavorable situation is in the armed units of the Central Military District, where the number of recorded hazing has doubled. S. Fridinsky pointed to a dangerous increase of the number of suicides in the ranks of the military.

The first years after the collapse of the Soviet Union officers for the most part have not seen any problems associated with Islam. The fact there were some objective reasons - on the one hand, the Central Asian republics and Azerbaijan seceded from the USSR, on the other hand, the principle of recruitment, according to which many recruits were close to home was distributed. For these reasons, in only certain of military districts officers had to work with soldiers who professed Islam.

But by the end of 1994, and especially in connection with the outbreak of hostilities in Chechnya, the situation has changed markedly. The question of "Islamic factor and its army," and - increasingly - "Islam and security forces" was understood as strong actual as evidenced by the fact of his reflection in the works of popular literature. Thus, the author of detective stories Chingiz Abdullayev, in his novel "The alternative for sinners," depicted a situation in which employees of one of Moscow's special police units in an effort to detain the offender, almost burst into a mosque. Since this "could lead to unwanted incidents in Moscow," Special Forces leadership "ordered to enter into all our units at least one Muslim. If necessary, he can, taking off shoes to enter the mosque and talk to people without offending the feelings of believers.

In the mid-90s at the Military Academy RVSN of Dzerzhinsky there was the technique of using a psycho-adaptive when dealing with "Muslim." Its authors relied on the experience of psihokonfessional influence in the mosques in Moscow (especially - in the Great mosque), Ryazan, Ufa, Perm. It is important to emphasize that adopted a positive approach towards Islam and Muslims. The researchers noted that "domestic Islamic studies and journalism in the first place on the Islamic theme, focused on the overall political situation, formed a one-sided in our society, negative attitudes toward the theory and practice of Islam." They emphasized that "today the role of Islam and traditionalism is a necessary part of life culture of the past into the present, scary participation, with all the force of an independent reality which transforms the memory of the past in the imagination of the future".

Scientific development required not only knowledge of Islamic tradition, the history of Muslim peoples, but also attract a large reservoir of techniques of psychological impact on an individual (rather widely used by secret services), including trance, techniques of neurolinguistic programming and non-directive hypnosis. They stressed the importance of "removal" of non-verbal information, its correct interpretation, considering the peculiarities of gesture, facial expression "eye signals access." All this is mentioned in the above-mentioned methodological development, "provides enough information to develop a strategy for the first conversation.

The next phase should focus on the verbal test of the earlier non-verbal information. Further, through the gradual selection of similar requirements for the believer the basic traditions of Islam, and to the soldier - the statutes of the Russian Armed Forces, in the mind of the recruit should be associating army relationship with Shariah. It is advisable to also attempt to combine in the minds of military concepts of mahalla with the idea of a military collective (unit, part), which will run the service.

Developers of Military Academy believe that these objectives will allow adaptation of recruits from the Muslim regions in the new army space, to prevent more successfully the formation of microgroups on the principle of friendly association, and combat "moral and distorted estimates, false traditions, hazing".

In 2011, the Russian soldiers who identified themselves as believers, are distributed among various sectarian groups as follows: 75% - Orthodox, 12% - Muslim (which roughly corresponds to the specific gravity of the population of Muslim regions in the whole population of the Russian Federation), and 1.5 % are Buddhists, Catholics and Baptists. A relatively small number of soldiers stuck other faiths, including "unconventional." Among the Tatar and Bashkir - recruits from the Volga region - said that Muslims are 43%, among the North Caucasian peoples - 61%. Many of them identified Islam with notions of "national", "popular." In this regard, the sociologists of Ministry of Defence say: "As representatives of the Muslim faith, their understanding of religion is predominantly based on national traditions, religious norms close to the penetration of life and the lives of the people".

Unlike Muslims, the soldiers who profess orthodoxy, religious values are defined more scholastic, and incorporate elements of other religions, omens and superstitions. At the same time as the main motives for the treatment of adherents of Orthodox faith, called the search for meaning of life, suffered personal tragedy, the desire to find inner confidence, hope for a favorable outcome in a difficult situation. On the contrary, the Muslims, as noted above, the appeal to religion has no more individual choices , which is given an impetus to some circumstances of adult life, and the traditional family upbringing.

Officer corps is almost entirely complete by Slavs it is difficult to prevent inter-ethnic hostility and even inter-ethnic clashes in the military environment. For many of the commanders are very poorly known features of national mentality, traditions and customs of personnel, recruited from the national borderlands. This has led and leads to a gross violation of both commanders and fellow soldiers of the national peculiarities of psychology, traditions, customs and culture of non-Slavic nationalities of soldiers, denies the latter possibility to fully meet its national and household needs.

This is the conclusion was made by military sociology, analyzed the state of the Soviet / Russian Army. But many of the officers themselves recognize that their preparation for working in multinational teams and multi-confessional is not enough. They note, in particular, ignorance of the Muslim specificity. In most parts of joints, and the officer does not speak of the necessary forms and methods of working with soldiers of different nationalities. One of the main reasons is lack of attention to the problem of interethnic and interfaith relations in the military and educational institutions.
Underreporting, especially ignoring of the Islamic factor in any aspect of it, in the development and implementation of military policy and national security of Russia can lead to serious disagreements among different groups, a split in society and a serious drop in combat readiness of the Russian army.
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