AREA OF GLOBALIZATION, DEMOCRATIZATION, INTELLECTUALIZATION
THINK TANK "FALCOGROUP"
Scientific Advisory Center "Consciousness"
My Great Web page
4.5. The radicalization of Islam.
Radical Islam of the NC is the manifestation of trends hyperreislamization of Caucasian society and the politicization of Islam. This is an extreme, aggressive part of political Islam. Radical currents in Islam there throughout history and manifested in various forms, sects, brotherhoods in the Middle Ages, the religious-nationalist organizations, "Jamaat" (community), in modern and contemporary times.
In today's Russia under the term "Wahhabism" can be understood as any "Renovationism" or "revivalism", following the Saudi model, extremism, fundamentalism associated with this trend of intense politicization of Islam, the return to the ideas of the Caliphate and Jihad. This term is often used simply as a swear nickname - a convenient label for their opponents, but not their identity on the basis of faith. Much more appropriate and correct name is different - Salafis, which underlines the very idea of the supporters of "revival" of Islam. In all religions there are fundamentalist movements, calling for a drastic cleansing of religious doctrines and institutions to change individual, social, and social behavior in accordance with religious dogma.
Evaluating the processes occurring in the Islamic ideology, all that is undesirable to official authority (both secular and religious) to denote by the terms - "Islamic fundamentalism" and "Wahhabism." There are also other symbols of the different branches, which have become diversified, trend - the Islamists, radicals, jihadists. There are also milder variants (as followers call themselves Salafi) - Net Muslims muvahiddiny.
Often clear dividing line cannot be made between the fundamentalists and traditionalists, conservatives and reformists, because of the complex and multifaceted nature of the theological and legal arguments in Islamic doctrine and the intertwining of schools and trends (also undergone a long historical evolution.) But it’s necessary to hold such a line always, and for an adequate understanding of the diverse phenomena of the modern picture of Islamic life is important to investigate the specific Islamic trend in a particular place and at a particular time.
It is extremely important to understand the roots and causes of the emergence of Islamic radicalism. Existing theories and approaches to this question may be very generally divided into economic, political, ideological, bihaveoristic, psychological, functionalist, based on the concepts of security, the role of the individual or institution.
The Islamic tradition was manifested in the NC and is manifested in unequal ways and with varying degrees of depth - in urban and rural areas and among different ethnic groups. Often, in everyday practice is not very important doctrine, but an understanding of what Islam is in the locality, in particular ethnic groups. Radical Islam in Russia is a multidimensional complex phenomenon that changes its direction in accordance with the political situation. Among the participants there are representatives from all strata of society.
The existence of radical Islamic groups in the NC has been known for another 50 years of XX century (in the mountain villages of Dagestan). Lightning gaining speed in the beginning of perestroika, to its end, they have already made a serious force. Peak of penetration occurred in the period of exacerbation of interethnic hard, clan, social conflict, many of whom were syncretic. The spearhead of their propaganda Salafists directed to the criticism of 'godless' local authorities, in what many of the locals were willing with them to accept and to continue.
Common tyranny, corruption and cronyism in the formation of power structures, government secrecy and "insensitivity to the needs of its population, have recruiting radicals". The latter offers an alternative: a global caliphate - the state of the faithful with a true "Islamic order" based on sharia . Neovahhabizm not appealed to tribalism and ethnicity, and the values of equality and brotherhood, for social justice. Thus, the Caucasian neovahhabizm formed for itself a social base in the region, referring to the "downtrodden and underprivileged". Salafis have been supported by some of the most influential clans of the Caucasus, deprived of power. Recent tried to use the financial and propaganda resources of radical Islamists for their own purposes - to gain power in the republics.
The Chechen conflict was the catalyst for the penetration of radical Islamist ideas and ideologies in the Caucasus, although initially settled the radical Islamists in Dagestan, who was the ideological center of Wahhabism in Russia. An example of the Chechen Wahhabis and abundant financial aid from the outside intensified activities of religious radicals. The Chechen wars spawned terrorism, which even in wealthy countries cannot be fast "treatment".
"Clumsy" policy of the central government, incompetent actions of the Army, undiplomatic and ignorant tactics of the regional leadership undermined the prestige of authority as a guarantor of public safety. It is short-sighted policy of the federal center has led to the transformation of an ordinary separatism in the national liberation movement, and classical Islam - a Salafi. The radicalization of Islam is only partially affected the Russian heartland. There are several reasons why in the NC, but not in the Volga region, Salafis are still a significant force:
• lack of a single center in tarikatistov;
• multinational of the NC (Salafism combines and removes nationalism);
• geographical feature (mountain area);
• severe cronyism;
• the psychological characteristics of people of the NC;
• easier to establish contacts with foreign research centers - through Mohajirs;
• targeted funding;
• The general practice of sending students to study in Middle Eastern centers, most of whom returned to the bearers of "righteous" ideas, etc.
Although events in the Caucasus speak around the country talking about the radicalization of Islam is possible only with respect to the NC.
Without examining in detail the ideology of Salafism, for analysis of conflict, you must specify the basic principles different from straights of the NC:
• rejection of worship for people who are considered by some reason or another, "endowed by God with special abilities," "saints" (wali), able to perform miracles (Karamat);
• refusal to worship the tombs or other sacred objects and places (ziyarat);
• purification of Islam from the later innovations (bid’a)
Distinctive features of the Caucasus have become intolerant of Salafi civil secular society and the desire to replace it with Islamic, arranged under Sharia law and the inadmissibility of the existence of separate state and religion, the contrast between the Islamic world the rest of civilization models, the denial of all non-Islamic laws.
Of course, it’s impossible to consider everybody the "Renovationists in Islam" peaceful and law-abiding. As for the leaflets, videos, replicated the ideology of "resistance" in Chechnya and Dagestan, "select group" - with the same Arabic designation, "Jamaat", regarded as the prototype of the future of a global Islamic state - a caliphate. Strongly, albeit selectively, rejecting innovations (as in faith and in secular life), there are insults to infidels , Christians, Jews, atheists and hypocrites among Muslims dzhahilistov . It sounds harsh punishment threat of Sharia in this world and the "fiery massacre" on that one.
Threat is the preaching of jihad solely as a war, than the radical Salafis differ from tarikatistov. In this context, dangerous and "methodical" are advices such as "how to live and work, leading the jihad", because de facto they turn calls for practical action to destroy the social order and integrity of Russia. The true meaning of Islam deliberately distorted, which compromises the religion, its culture and faith in society's eyes.
Representatives of Salafism do not accept a regional model of Islam, showing intolerance to non-Islamic traditions. A famous Russian expert on Islam, A.A. Ignatenko, writes: "The introduction of Wahhabism necessarily leads to the following purely negative for social stability and national security implications:
•split of the national Muslim community in a particular country;
• creation of a divided part of the national Muslim community (which may be small), active anti-systemic (anti-social and anti-national) group or groups;
• The inclusion of this group(s) into a worldwide network of Wahhabi organizations with a common ideology, centralized management, external financing and, of course, going outside, from the Wahhabi center
(s) political goal-setting.
In comparison with their classical and the most perfect forms, Arabic and Persian, the North Caucasian Islam (with the exception of the medieval center, as Derbent) is deep "sinkretichen", in other words, imbued with pre-Islamic polytheistic beliefs and still is in a centuries-long process of becoming, which was to Moreover, interrupted, or, at least, slowed down the revolution of 1917 and related trends of modernization (including the growth of national consciousness) . Thus, the Sufi brotherhoods are the historically dominant form of religious organization in the eastern part of the NC (government periodically tries to lean on the Sufi to curb Islamic radicals) - considered by several experts as a form of adaptation of Islam as a subordinate element to pre-Islamic institutions, crony society. And in the western part of the North Caucasus, where monotheism of Abrahamic religions relatively shallow sink its roots, a departure from the secular culture in the context of the nationwide "demodernization" turns directly to the return of the "animistic beliefs and rituals".
Still need to make a reservation, you should not clearly distinguish Sufism and Wahhabism: a religious component of political and social processes in the Caucasus is complex, ambiguous and multifaceted. Trying to limit hard every religious phenomenon by the scientific classification is doomed to failure: the ideal types for the analysis of radical Islam are not fit. Almost all the local leaders of Wahhabism were from traditional Sufi brotherhoods. They kept in touch with their wyrd (a branch of orders).
The reasons of the radicalization of Islam in Russia should be considered in terms of influence on the process of external and internal factors. We can distinguish general and specific reasons.
•desire of Islam to regulate the life of society;
• a natural for any Muslim society (umma), the expression of discontent in a religious form;
• unstable situation in the NC and in Russia as a whole. "It should not be an absolute impact on the
situation in the region on all Russian Islam, but it must be admitted that the Islamists fighting has the echoes on the Muslim Russia".
• the weakness of state institutions, particularly law enforcement, "criminalization" of power in general as a consequence of attempts clans in power to find common language with the local ethnic and tribal authorities;
• sharp opening of external borders and the consequent freedom of movement;
• ability to make the Hajj;
• an opportunity to study in foreign Muslim educational centers;
• the possibility of receiving financial assistance from various governmental and non-Muslim organizations to conduct charitable, educational, academic and political activities.
• extremely high "passions" in connection with the presence of a large percentage of youth in the general population (40% are under 30 years);
• historically harsh living conditions, the presence of a large number of large families, traditional mutual assistance based on family as well as on regional and religious terms;
• high rate of birth.
Radical Islam as an ideological doctrine and political practice is implemented in the various Islamic organizations. These organizations can be global and regional level, and forms of radical Islamist organizations may be NGOs, foundations, political parties.
Jamaat. It’s necessary to elaborate the term "jamaat", because according to their original historical structure the radicals want to restore the present situation. For the first time in the NC word "jamaat" appeared in Dagestan to denote atomic political entities. For them, there was a generalized term, and specific Jamaat had proper names: Akhty, Tsudhar, Akusha, etc. The unions of voluntary societies (i.e., relatively stable political territorial federations of Jamaat) also had their own names, such as Akhty-para, Akusha-Dargo, Antsroso ("Ten villages") and other. Jamaats these are a densely populated and good fortified cities with a sovereign republican type of government . There is every reason to believe that Islam from the beginning was the organizing principle of life system of Jamaa. Perhaps the pattern of political organization for Muslims of Dagestan was not a caliphate, or appeared then numerous Muslim monarchies, and the urban community (umma). All the political, administrative and intellectual life in Dagestan was organized under the Jamaat, and the relationships between them were based on Islamic law.
Each Jamaat consisted of a few (from three or six to several dozen) of individual tribal groups - tuhums. Last had no neither ancestral property, nor their leader (tribal leader). In some tuhumy could be incorporated into the new settlers were also sanctioned congregation may be transitions from one family to another tuhuma. There have been cases of population redistribution of Jamaat in a number of tuhumov. Jamaat rigidly separated its citizens from all outsiders. Each tuhum belonged exclusively particular Jamaat, it was not and could not be such a tuhum (descent) association, whose members belonged to different Jamaat.
Belonging to his Jamaat is the most important socio-political identity of Dagestani, and it was secured written laws adopted by the congregation of Jamaat.
Jamaat had indivisible sovereignty. The bearer of supreme power in the Jamaat jamaat was himself - a collection of all adult men of the city. He addressed the issues of peace and war, entered into alliances with other Jamaat or out of them. Each Jamaat was also a council of elders - the highest representative body. The basis of representation based on tuhumah and neighborhoods - the most important segments of the structure of the Jamaat. Authority disposed of the persons elected for one year. Together with the main manager of his associates were elected with specialized functions, as well as a judge (kadi, Dibir) mullahs (imams) and other servants of the mosques.
The highest punishment for the culprit was the expulsion from the Jamaat and the termination provision of the protection. This led almost inevitably to the death for the condemned. Professional class of priests there was not. Outstanding and recognized Ulama could serve as a judge or a mosque run by mullahs, and could be limited to teaching or simply to live the conduct of its economy. Jamaat would invite for a fee in their mosque as an imam and (or) Qadi knowledgeable person from another Jamaat, if your environment is not subjected to decent. However, it did not seek to challenge and Jamaat did not weaken its sovereignty, since in any case, these functions were strictly defined (conducting the proceedings, religious ritual procedures, training of children, etc.). The authority of Mullah Alim Shaikh Effendi or not turned to be bound by the office and did not give any formal powers or powers of the spiritual or secular nobility.
The above description of the historical dzhamaat (democratic) structure of the religio-political rule (emphasis on the peoples of NC) today is an important analytical information about how to aspire to radical movements. With all the current intransigence tarikatistov and Salafis basis of their field to remain fairly monolithic - it's sustained for centuries clan structure of society in the Caucasus, which is preserved to this day.
Dagestan is the center of radical Islam in the NC. Chechnya and Ingushetia were only and act as a "scene" but the ideological epicenter was always Dagestan in the Caucasus War and the post-Soviet crisis. Dagestan cannot be called a republic a lack of education in Islam:
- in 1987, officially there were 27 mosques in four of the ten cities and 12 out of 30 rural districts. In 1994, there were more than a thousand Initially this growth is mainly due to the fact that throughout Dagestan remaining space back to communities of believers. Boom of construction of mosques appeared later in the period from 1995 to 1999 - every year 100-200 of new buildings were built. In 2000, the number only counted mosques in the republic amounted to 1585. In Makhachkala, there are now 60, the center can accommodate about 10 thousand people, is currently under construction for a substantial expansion of its;
- Today there are officially more than 1,700 Muslim religious associations;
- The total number of official religious leaders of Dagestan is more than 2500 (imams, muezzins and
- In the country, there is a network of Islamic schools (three of its levels: Maktab, madrasas and colleges) - 13 Islamic universities and 43 Islamic branches of universities, more than 130 madrassas and 250 mechet elementary schools. In the mountainous rural secondary schools in the Arabic language is required, along with Russian. With a deep analysis the general areas of religious tension have the following order: Hunzah, Botlikh, Shamilsky, Karabudakhkent, Kizilyurt. According to incomplete statistics of the Government Committee for Religious Affairs of Dagestan in Islamic educational establishments of the Middle East, North Africa, Pakistan and Malaysia are taught about a thousand of Dagestani; in the Republic they published several religious publications (newspapers, magazines), electronic versions of them are placed on the Internet. There are a considerable number of Islamic websites with forums and an extensive library. To promote religious Islamic organizations Dagestan Republican television and radio are actively used. Twice a week, there are conducted broadcasts "The World To Your Home" in Russian television. Propaganda of Islam is organized by the Republican staff of DUMD radio in Russian, and languages of the peoples of Dagestan;
- A vivid indicator of the general religious atmosphere - make the pilgrimage to Mecca. Over the past 15 years, more than 100,000 of Dagestan have made the hajj, which is more than 70% of all Russians who made the pilgrimage to Russia.
In general, many pilgrims for analysts is quite telling indicator: 1989 - 4; 1990 - 346; 1991 - about One thousand, 1992 - 6318; 1993 - more than six thousand; 1994 - 7600; 1995 - 9469; 1996 - 12 563; 1997 - 12 208. The following 1998 is a record - 13 268. In the following 1999 pilgrimage waned - 7,200 people. Recent years (2004-2009) the index has stabilized and has been maintaining within a year 2500-3500 people.
Graduates of high schools and madrasah are three categories of skill: an incomplete education, Imam, Alim (a specialist in Arab-Islamic sciences), and after work are held by religious organizations to law enforcement agencies. In summary, conclusion is the offers of some Russian politicians to the public about the need to expand the project "Russian Islam" (more extensive training of Islam at the state level) have already little relevance.
USA/UK 2007-2012 © FALCOGROUP