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5.2. Gender characteristics of the traditional Caucasian society.
Gender role is differentiation of activity, status and responsibilities of people depending on their gender. Gender roles are considered as a kind of ethno-social roles, they are normative, expressed certain expectations are manifested in behavior. At the level of culture, gender roles are defined in the context of the sexual symbolism of ethnic group, its stereotypes of masculinity and femininity. Since the structure of the Ethno-social generally based on the gender division of labor, the socialization of the younger generation includes gender-differential "grinding" not only skills, but also cultural and psychological types.
Despite some differences of life between women and men from different ethnic North Caucasus, the similarities predominate, giving the right to talk about some of Caucasian gender differences. It can be considered unique by the fact that in whatever period of his life was not a woman in the family life she always takes second place after the men, but by no means a passive, especially in the family. Family is the place where the greatest independence of women and their initiative are evident, and where she plays a particularly important role.
Adults raising children, treat boys and girls differently because they have a gender-stereotypical biases that should be typical for a boy, and that for girls. As a result of this approach girls and boys begin to differ in the respect that is dictated by the prejudices of adults. For example, in Caucasian tradition communication with girl has got more gentle nature, she is taught cradle song, nursery rhymes, a special demeanor, etiquette. The boys, on the contrary, it is forbidden to engage women's affairs, they are cultivated traits of character peculiar to men, allowing the antics and excessive mobility, encouraging romps, the manifestations of physical force, forgiving unorganized and sometimes rude. Since the first view of the world baby (no matter what sex it is ) receive from the mother and those of women, among whom spends its early childhood, the influence of the latter on the formation of his views cannot be underestimated.
Ethnopedagogy of peoples of the Caucasus in the approach to education take into account the sex and age stratification of education, in which there are three foreign of girls age (6-7, 10-12; 14-15 years) and two for boys (6-7 and 15-16 years). The fact of life and growing up makes it inevitable and funnel some rounds where the end of one and the beginning of another form of a single order. These are the birth, attainment of physical and social maturity, marriage, parenthood, raising the status, professional specialization, and death. And each of these phenomena is accompanied by ceremonies that have a similar objective: to ensure that a person moving from one defined state to another. Thus supporting the existence of a discrete system, where a change of generations, from time to time with their usual social roles.
Woman's life in traditional Caucasian family and society is characterized by a number of specific features associated with the natural geographic environment, socioeconomic, political and religious, situation conditions of life. The appearance of the Caucasian girls in the family is often found without showing much emotion turbulent, in contrast to the appearance of the boy. In the scientific literature, even had the impression that the birth of the female is found in the NC cold, and sometimes hostile. The basis for this interpretation of feelings is the fact that son preference is dictated by the exceptional role of men in traditional society. The birth of a son is regarded as a continuation of the name, and the girl is - "foreign goods". But despite this, the girls grow up in Caucasian families, surrounded by love and care and up to six - seven years of virtually separated from the boys. In this age group only mothers educate them. Then girls are separated from boys. They used to be included in the labor process, taking on their duties.
Since childhood, the female is prepared for a major role in their life - motherhood. Role-playing, puppets, and then directly involved in the education of younger brothers and sisters is just for that, with the development of the maternal instinct and training in child care is the minimum, without which there is no development and adoption of the gender roles traditionally prescribed for women. As early as five - six years girls are involved in caring for infants, the age of seven are presented to them much more complex and stringent requirements than their peers to-boys.
Educating by parents and relatives qualities in a girl hostess explained not prejudice, and the need to inculcate appropriate skills to facilitate implementation of its social prescriptions. Sex-role orientation of children with regard to their future social functions carried out in the first days of life.
Child and adolescent girls living in an environment occurs women and a variety of permanent contacts with them. Such contacts have a similar shape to the whole cultural area of the Caucasus, but in some people, they recorded their own specific and have only their inherent attributes.
Previously, for example, representatives of the Adyghe (Circassian) people built in their land separate cottages for adult unmarried daughters, where they took their guests and friends, organized a girl's gatherings. A similar pattern of meetings was observed among Terek Cossacks, but for it there were separate rooms in the house.
Meeting of young women and girls practiced in many peoples of Dagestan. They are held only once a week at a time in different homes. Typically, the companies are visited by friends-contemporary but in small villages in gatherings involving representatives of different age groups. Often at parties they served meals, which consist of the so-called "women's food" usually sweet. Girl's meetings and meals together are considered binding on religious holidays.
Modern Caucasian family and kinship group, which consisted in the past from a wide range of relatives in the male line, has now become virtually a small family, which includes parents with children and the separated families of married daughters. The number of authoritarian families Reduced, and families spread actually recognized the equality of parents and adult children that was especially pronounced in urban households. Traditionally, the head of household is man. Formally, the rule of male reflects the norms of family etiquette, which emphasizes the prestige of the men. In rural families hold more traditional etiquette than in urban areas. But this does not mean that a woman brought low in most families. A mother, a wife, as a rule, knows a family ticket office and at its discretion governs the family budget. In the major part of modern Caucasian family relations are based on the actual full rights for all its members.
Temporary labor and other migration of parts of the male population of the republic considerably weakened the traditional control over the behavior of the older generation of young people. The latter proved more susceptible not only the general Soviet modernization (Russian national culture with elements of Western mass culture, higher education and public service, an ideological complex, semi-legal foundations of business), but the latest external ideological influences, especially the promotion of radical ethno-nationalism, political Islam and Finally, the ideology of armed resistance to the existing State Department under the segregation the Caucasus from Russia.
Apart from a small-educated young people in post-perestroika period of the nationalist upsurge, a large part of rural male youth actually came out of the "family circle" and became a separate (but not independent) social force to which the family has replaced a "fighting fraternity" with ideological and military instructors in the face of political Islam Jamaat leader.
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