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5.4. Inter Caucasian relations.
Relations between the North Caucasian peoples are so complicated, delicate and controversial that a broad study in the limits of this paper is not possible. Only the main points that characterize the overall picture of some relationships may be emphasized.
In the Caucasus, there was always their internal account and their own ethnic disposition, caused by the history (or rather, the historical mythology), the level of welfare, cultural achievements, representation at the center, behavioral norms, and even the youth subculture. For example, Kabardian, Dagestanis, Ossetians, Circassians have never considered themselves "lower" or "weaker" for example, the Chechens, but paid tribute to the so-called "Chechen image." Chechens have always been associating with the portrait of Tolstoy's Hadji Murad, and later the only hero of solzhenitsen rebellious nation in the Gulag. The situation with the military campaign and, later, with the typical behavior of a demonstrative Ramzan Kadyrov securely transfer shaped "Chechen - Caucasian" as a stereotype for all non-Caucasian people. Therefore, the Chechens should be considered more detail, because of their differences even with their closest neighbors are huge.
Chechen relations with neighbors were not always easy, especially with the Ossetians in Ingush (because of territorial disputes around the Suburban District), Dagestanis (because of the Chechen-akkintsy returning after deportation, in Dagestan and laid claim to the occupied lands and houses, a place within the power structure and resource allocation) and Ingush, which had to share power and finances within the authority. Attitude toward the Chechens, as well, and all the representatives of the peoples of NC, is differ by a greater degree of detail in the sense of more natural feelings and attitudes depending on the specific people and situations.
According to the words of E. Kisriev "We have such an attitude toward the Chechens that if the Chechens are in the minority, they are very good guys, if they are the majority, then everybody - start to belittle and crush. This is the political people. He knows what the power is. Chechen constantly tries to atmosphere and this can greatly change their behavior. For example, the company is sitting in a restaurant at a table, a Chechen said toasts for everyone, shows respect to everybody. But then the company of Chechens came and sat down at the table. This Chechen becomes quite different - arrogant, insolent, and so begins. For the Dagestani Chechens is a thief. There Kumyk joke about the Chechens (and Kumyks closer and longest lived neighbors to the Chechens), "Kumyk invites Chechen sets khinkal and other entertainment. Then the second and the third time. Chechen people are saying, why do not you invite him to your place. "And what will I say, if he suddenly asks where I got the meat?"
“The Chechens morality is different the Dagestani morality. They may be ashamed, but no conscience. If the Chechen stole and got caught, then he is a hero and nobody will say him anything. Father will never blame his son for it. Well, if caught, then the jokes and mockery, that such a failure. For us, (Dagestan), it is unclear how they can keep people in shackles, to use and resell them as slaves. We were slaves in the Caucasus, but not in the classical sense. Dagestan has long been settled captives in Jamaat somewhere on the outskirts and gave him a wife, some lame. They had to provide for themselves. We have scarce resources and keep him as a slave to the software itself would be more expensive. The Chechens had better land and slaves could generate income. Therefore, they can still keep a man in chains and sell them like cattle. Chechens are a very energetic people, and very durable. They have hyperenergy. They apparently look like the Europeans more than Dagestanis, but in fact they are not Europeans. "
These statements by E. Kisriev as a rule always cause a violent reaction of Chechens, "I think that Kisriev has got a complex of inferiority, which have always Dagestan in relation to the Chechens. He outlined the most common opinion about the Chechens in Dagestan. His story is full of experiences that form the basis of ratings. There are many historical stereotypes, based on national traditions, which there are many in each national group in the Caucasus. In dealing with many of Dagestan every time I've noticed some hidden comparison, one might even say subconscious rivalry with the "Chechen". Interestingly, the focus is on how "cool Avar" (Dargin, Kumyk, Lak, etc.) guys seriously talked to "increased tone" with the Chechens. The rivalry is not with the Chechens themselves, but with the mythical stereotype of the "Chechen", which is richly Chechen life was furnished with. Perhaps in the Dagestani environment tend to trust these stereotypes, and almost going through a complex and associated with this question "we are not worse," which is relevant to them forever. "
One reason of the negative attitude towards Chechens (at least among Dagestani) lies in the contrast of their mating behavior, which is expressed in more endogamous, which in turn is treated as "closed" or "individualism." In fact, these differences are based on quite other reasons that have nothing to do with "respect" or "disrespect" of other nations. Dagestan is multiethnic and here marriages between local ethnic groups are very common. In the more populous Chechnya choosing a marriage partner from among their number is much wider.
North-Caucasian solidarity and Chechen sentiments at the beginning of post-Soviet period has increased significantly due to the conflict in Abkhazia, where Chechen armed groups have played a very important role in the military victory of the separatist regime of Vladimir Ardzinba against Georgian troops. A kind of popular sympathy, and perhaps just a passion neighbors, were also observed at the start of the campaign. Later, when the war scorched the whole region and there were victims among the North Caucasians, the attitude toward the Chechens began to change.
The appearance of an armed and "independent" people with the psychology of military superiority among the neighboring nations was immediately assessed as a violation of longstanding ethnic balance and as a chance to become dependent or political hostages of the radical Chechen policy. "Never such was to have been under the Dagestani Chechens, and now the threat is, and some of our hottest guys are ready to put everything in its place" - the words of E. Kisriev. " When we were in Kizlyar, at the time of Pervomaisky crisis, I remembered well how to negotiate with the Chechens cool Avars came and showed up the steep right said:" We now begin to put the heads of the Chechens on the square as long as your fool Raduyev does not release all the hostages and does not take away from here ". This is acted on them more than the conditions of the federal representatives and the president of Dagestan Magomedov".
After the attack on Dagestan in the North Caucasus region a dramatic change of sentiment in regard to Chechnya and the Chechens has seen. "These are thugs, not human, atheists. Why did they come to us when we had not invited. They took everything: all warm sweaters from the wardrobe, carpets have picked up, everything of value and why did shoot a fridge four times "- complained Avar woman from the village of Novolak after the fighting ended in the area and civilians returned to their homes, many of which were destroyed and most the plundered. "They brought arms here on Kamaz and loaded them back to our good. They have no forgiveness for it. No they are not Muslims. If you are fighting for the faith, let come and pray wherever and whenever they want, no one will touch them and nobody will disturb them. "
"We'll get those Chechens ourselves and deal quickly with them just they came to our land and defiled her. We now can’t go back to our houses after the enemy hosted. All befoul, overturned and smashed. I was stopped by one of the Chechens in the street and was asked the paper. I pulled out of my pocket my pension certificate, and he saw something else sticks out and asks, and what is it? I took out a folded piece of paper from the Koran. It was my talisman. I always carry it with me and gave my daughter when she went to Makhachkala to go to college. So he said, "Throw that junk crap!" Where did these people come, that we should be imposed by their own order? We all grew up under Soviet rule. And they need to ensure that women face covered" . Beslan raid put an end to the era of the Chechen separatists 1991-2004,. The numerous versions, accompanied by a variety of facts about documentary ownership of the Russian Center in planning, preparing and managing the terrorists could not destroy the extremely negative attitude toward the Chechens not only among the North Caucasian peoples, but also the world community.
The division of labor between national groups (for example, between Kabardins, Balkar, Russian, etc., in Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay between, Circassians, Russian, etc Nogais in Karachay-Cherkessia), securing certain types of activities for members of specific ethnic group in a stable and prosperous periods of social development does not cause aggravation of ethnic and political tensions. In a stable society is perceived as normal. For example, in Dagestan Avars, Rutuls, Tsakhurs, Aguls and others have been employed mostly sheep, Dargins and Lezgins - sheep farming and gardening, Kumyks - grain farming and vegetable growing, Laks - sheep and specialize in various crafts, tabasarantsy - agriculture, horticulture and carpet weaving. In the national consciousness of every nation in the region formed the grading system and values that define the prestige of a particular type of activity, resulting in multi-ethnic society of the NC formed ethnoprofessional niches, traditionally, often over many generations belonging to a number of ethnic groups.
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