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5.5. Phenomenon of steriotipization in the psychology of conflict.
Stereotypes play the most important role in interethnic relations - a simplified, schematic images characterized by high degree of flatness of individual submissions.
Ethnocentrism as a sense of belonging to a particular human group always contained the consciousness of the superiority of their group over others. The idea of the superiority of their traditions, the gods of the strangers observed for each of the national epic, in his tales, legends. Ethnic stereotypes limit the scope of communication between Russian nationalities, causing wariness on both sides, preventing a more close and intimate human relationships, collaborative marriage. Alienation, in turn, makes contacts and generates new misunderstandings, even conflicts.
With appropriate means, we can establish the presence in memory of each Caucasian representative certain stereotypes and explore their character. First, the stereotypes these are a social phenomenon and as a psychological phenomenon, characterized a particular people, that is, to understand their origins and mechanisms of existence, we must examine the current psyche of each of Caucasian ethnicity. Second, to apply the so-called dual monitor - this is the observation of behavior in the home and in the other ethnic cultures.
Stereotypes begin to form in childhood. In mono-ethnic republics of the Russian stereotype is made up of secondary sources (parents, television), but not from direct experience. Russia already has a whole generation of Chechens, Ingush and Dagestani, who grew up without direct contact with the Russian (except military) and not rarely raised in the traditions of the Caucasian war, that basic underlying stereotypes are formed as a result of early socialization, by observing the behavior of others. A striking example is the quality of the Chechen rebels, most of them were from the so-called "pure" mountain tapes, while the Chechens from Nadterechny districts participate in hostilities were virtually absent.
The main property of national stereotypes is the stability, and even the rigidity to the new information - virtually identical in the sense qualities are assessed differently depending on whether they are assigned their own or someone else's nation. People choose a positive label, when they describe the features inherent in their "own", and a negative label as the description of the same features of the "other": the Russian perceive themselves as good-hearted and free-view, and the Chechens consider their slaves and prostitutes. And vice versa - the Chechens believe they are inherent courage and dignity, and the Russian call them "beasts". Chechen and Russian are confident that their hostility toward each other is quite natural, since not only due to historical memory, but also by negative qualities and behaviors. His arguments are often supported by the fact of personal contact with people of a given nationality: "I know these Chechens (Russian). We had such a "sheep" ("cattle"), it is easier to kill him than to explain something ...».
Another stereotype is formed from Russian, where Caucasians are seen as rivals in power and in the resistance. The more dangerous opponent - the more hostility it causes. No accident that the most stable and strong biases exist for those ethnic groups who, because of the peculiarities of historical development has been at certain times the most dangerous rivals . Particularly true in this sense, the attitude toward the Chechens. The gradual development of relations between Russian and Chechens were objective law, which does not depend on someone else's evil and good will. But this process was very painful. For a long period of Russian history, the Chechens stood for "the people, not amenable to education". If the Russian northern nations are confer with traits of naivete, intellectual disability, stereotype Chechens qualities are such as aggressiveness, ruthlessness, cruelty, cunning, hypocrisy, brutality, and courage, dignity and pride. They do not deny mental abilities on the contrary, these abilities are often exaggerated. Fear against Chechen motivates overestimate the danger "they are very crafty." With a high degree of prejudice national identity becomes a crucial psychological factor, as the Chechens, as well as for Russian. They begin to pay attention especially with national identity all other human qualities seem secondary.
It is also important and relevant to their nationality, in the last twenty years it has changed opposite to the NC. The predominance of feelings of shame over the whole pride reflects the growth of Russian processes of alienation from their own ethnic group. Today, against any Caucasian Russian nominated the same standard opinion - "those Caucasians exhibit too high group solidarity, they always support each other, and we (Russian) - no". Small on the number nationalities, the more compact living, always exhibit a higher degree of cohesion than larger nations, and with any specific mental or national characteristics are not related. Here is the root of resistance to assimilation with the Russian side. Russian bias creates an acute sense from Caucasian their exclusivity, superiority. And this, of course, brings them makes more hold each other.
As a result, millions of people "of Caucasian appearance," regardless of their citizenship and nationality, in fact stuck racist stigma-steriotip - "black", which has little with the color of their skin, but it characterizes the state of mind to have been subjected to socio-cultural demodernization of post-Soviet society. Go to "blacks" today they attribute many of the foreigners "abroad" - mostly from those states that are not prosperous (Arabs and Africans), but in the same category with the inevitable and dark-skinned citizens of Western countries are fallen. Regardless of their nationality or religion, "black" are the object of systematic attacks by organized skinhead, it often ends with the death of the victims. Helplessness of the authorities and law enforcement officers are characterized by this ostentatious helplessness, who for their part, does not miss an opportunity to "poprizhat"(press) foreigners. Given the tight control of law enforcement agencies for any attempts of unauthorized performances and the lack of "street" as an independent political factor in today's Russia, the extent of involvement of some Russian authorities to act of skinhead seems quite reasonable. As for "ethnic Muslims" of Volga region, although they do not suffer the same neglect and hostility, as their southern brethren in the faith, but their actual marginal status is determined by the rule of Europocentric and proatlantic rhetoric.
Another example of a deep-seated stereotypes in ethnic - are sexual stereotypes. Caucasian men never dare to admit that their women behave as well as Russian, without constraints. But their repressed sexual impulses, since the rigidity of tradition, they unconsciously projects on Russian, and that seems the last are "unleashed and prostitutes." Thus, getting an opportunity to "savor" someone else's bad behavior, not realizing that we are actually talking about their own problems. The proof of this is unleashed conduct of Caucasian men with Russian women. People who are especially vigilant in watching someone else's morality, suspecting everyone else of something bad, but often attributed to others what they themselves would like to do, but do not dare to admit it.
This view is partly confirmed by the two Chechen campaigns. Massacre by Russian military, some were clearly sadistic nature, and not metaphorically, but literally - abuse of corpses putt in their mouth severed genitals. These facts lead to the conclusion that there is indeed a projection: hate is a socially acceptable channel for the expression of painful and contrary to public morality of sexuality, psychologically - in ascribing their own aspirations in Russian, physically in a sadistic reprisals against them. If we look at the picture on both sides, then, unlike the Chechen nationalists, the Russian more "having fun" in life abuse: forced to eat lard, to kneel and ask forgiveness, crawling down the hallway, stained by feces, i.e. trying to debase - "break the pride"1. Here, too, face the phenomenon of projection.
During the war, media demonstration of courage and generosity of the Chechens looked glamorous when they are released from prison officers and soldiers of the federal army. Especially theater and dramatic effect it was looked, when it was performed in the presence of soldiers' mothers. In fact the movement has been caused by installing a demonstration effect on the release. Subsequent events in Chechnya have shown preserved behavioral model of child abuse to the person, especially an armed enemy, or even in person to the opponent (for example, the murder of Dagestan and Stavropol police, the shooting of captives, mutilation of hostages), while significant, the demo (it may well be sincere) to install forgiveness of the enemy in the most humiliating manner.
Thus, these examples illustrate what the role played underlying stereotypes in the balance of international relations, that they are something basic - if the conflict is unavoidable consciousness and unconsciousness, and a person is forced on someone projecting repressed desires, it will be, above all, historically conditioned hostile people. It is absurd to think that all Russian and Caucasians - hidden convinced nationalists. Most just accept their national superiority over each other for granted, without thinking of the absurdity. There are those who understand this deadlock situation, but do not dare to speak openly about the need for integration.
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