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6.3.2. Ethnic conflicts.
Ethnic frictions are existed and will exist as long as the national differences. Methods of prevention and control of international conflicts depend on the state system. If the state is democratic, then arise conflicts are accompanied by structural changes in the political system of the state, as if authoritarian - increased repression of social movements and grip, leading to new sites of tension.
Multicultural society initially is less stable and more prone inter-ethnic conflicts than ethnically homogeneous society. The essence of the national question in a democratic society is reduced to how to balance the interests of all nations and peoples living throughout the state. However, often via the Internet (especially the blogosphere), even those accidents that are not considered initially, as ethnic conflict, then begin to interpret as a manifestation of the notorious "national question".
Interethnic conflicts for ease of analysis can be divided on a territorial basis:
- Extra republic (Stavropol and Krasnodar, Astrakhan, Volgograd and Rostov region), often conflicting parties are representatives of the local (Russian speaking) population and the diaspora, or the conflict between the peoples of the Caucasus.
- Intra republics (Dagestan, Kabardino-Balkaria, Karachay-Cherkessia) - most of them conflict parties are indigenous peoples.
In addition to the ethnic conflict of the NC on a territorial basis and the quality of ethnic boundaries can be used mixed division:
1) state law, which are based on the legal inequality of the nation where individual nations have their own state or severely limited in those of their needs. Examples are the Ossetian-Georgian conflict;
2) ethno-territorial conflicts are associated with a claim to the territory of one of several national entities. Sharp conflicts of this kind are generated by a vicious Soviet practice of redrawing boundaries of historical settlement of ethnic groups. Extremely sharp, they proceeded to the field of forced relocation of the deported peoples. This is most conflicts of NC: Ossetian-Ingush, Chechen and Dagestani, Kabardino-Balkaria, etc.
3) ethnodemographic conflicts related to the sharp increase in population of a particular ethnic group (usually non-titular), resulting in a feeling of inferiority among the indigenous population. For example, the present situation in the Krasnodar region is characterized by significant growth in population of the Armenian population.
Extra republicans conflicts.
Recently, in the public consciousness the idea gradually penetrated that the evaluation of incidents such as the conflicts in Kondopoga, a children's camp, "Don" and at the Manege Square, cannot remain at the level of newspaper notes. The need for more in-depth, analytical review of such events is recognized by a growing number of people in power as well as in public. The tragic events are a great response for thousands of kilometers from the commission, and the geographical extent and intensity of ethnic conflict cannot be overstated.
Unfortunately, we must note that these incidents are not random and not individual episodes, but only a stage in the development of a global process. For several years in Russia there was a whole series of precisely the same conflicts that have developed under the standard scheme, in particular episodes in Salsk and Kharagun. Case in Stavropol, where in a fight between local and visitors from the Caucasus were killed two local students. The public has raised a wave of indignation that almost led to massacres of Caucasians. Although the crime was classified as a prosecutor committed to domestic violence, the threat of this inter-ethnic relations have not diminished - as evidence of a subsequent act of terrorism in Stavropol before the performance of the ensemble "Vainakh" (2010). Officials did not become widely publicize the theme of tension relations of Russian and Caucasians, especially because the prosecution throughout and there is always the Wahhabis and the Caucasus Emirate.
For example, some of the ethnic conflicts in the Astrakhan region (2004-2008):
• v. Buruni massive collision of Dargin and Kalmyk, May 4, 1 August 2004. October 2004 in the village Astrakhan, village Buruni nearby Narimanov region new conflict between Kalmykia and Dargins - football fans team "Anji" of Makhachkala and Elista "Ural" between them after television of match. v. Yandyki. Conflicts between Dargins and Kalmyk, August 26, 2004
• v. Zenzeli. Liman district. Right on, "Eid al-Fitr," because of unpaid debts and Tatar Kalmyk argued with the two Chechens, who had weapons, which resulted victims, November 14, 2004
• v. Yandyki. Mass clashes between Chechens on the one hand and the Kalmyk and Russian on the other hand, 23-28 February, 15-18 August 2005
• settlement Upper Baskunchak. Conflicts between Chechens and Kazakhs, June 5, 2004
• island Lighthouse(Mayachniy). Mass clashes between Russian and Dagestanis, July 13, 2008, etc. In the dictionary, "Ethnic Relations" ethnic conflict is defined as "a form of relations between
national communities, characterized by a state of mutual claims, has a tendency to an increase in resistance up to hostilities, open war.
A common tenet of international conflicts is to determine the quality of ethnic boundaries:
- Severe - associated with a reduction of ethnic tolerance and a restriction on inter-ethnic interaction;
- Smoothed, implying the existence of contact zones of inter-ethnic cooperation and consensus on basic values, creates a zone of "consent."
- Blurred, characterizes the assimilation and disappearance of cultural differences.
The same classification boundaries used in the designation of subspecies of diasporas. When conflicting individuals belong to the same ethnic group, the conflict remains private, but if these people belong to different nationalities, the conflict situation often turns to escalate. Interethnic conflicts pass through the stages of amplification, spike deterrent, suspension, and, occasionally, the permissions. These processes are usually consistent, but often they overlap one another and may be repeated. Ethnic conflict in the NC, by definition, are local, but have a wide range of communication, and then they actualize the various parties to the conflict of identity. At the heart of conflict, in turn, are geographical proximity, different religions and cultures, different social structures and different historical memory of the two national societies. The impetus for inter-ethnic conflict can be both general and very specific, "situational" reasons specific to a particular region or republic.
Symptom and a catalyst for conflict and crises were more frequent in the early 90's migrants, refugees and IDPs in the region. Along with increasing intensity, the starting point for this process was published in 1991, a Federal Law "On the Rehabilitation of Repressed Peoples", which had a mixed impact on the NC, since deported after their rehabilitation and restoration of territorial units remained unsatisfied claims concerning the "territorial rehabilitation". The Act stimulated the spontaneous return of the mentioned groups in the disputed regions, posing numerous ethnic conflicts.
Interethnic conflicts usually have two modes of existence: the escalation and response (termination, at least temporarily). In moments of acute conflict the sides believe that there is nothing reconciled them. But history shows not only the conflicts and confrontation of ethnic communities, but also the cooperation and cohesion, with the appearance of common goals or the threat of a general existence. Remission in turn subdivided into persistent and unstable (agitated).
Remission in the NC usually depends on two factors:
1) depletion of the conflicting nations (high number of casualties, a significant number of refugees, great destruction). Radicals on both sides are not able to promote inter-ethnic strife. There is a need to start negotiations and reached some kind of agreement to suspend the bloodshed.
2) involvement of the Russian Center (law enforcement), which is interested in the settlement and with considerable physical potential to bring together warring parties.
Ethnic conflict is almost never possible to stop the direct negotiation between the warring nations alone. For the peoples of the Caucasus conflict is extremely difficult to sit down and start a productive discussion in order to rely on some form of ceasefire - is too great "value" in the Caucasus, some resentment, which is still in force the law of blood vengeance. Usually the first step to resolve the conflict, the Center brings the requirement that the conflict lay down their arms. He also, quite naturally, resists and attracts participants from outside, because the conflict is seen as a purely internal problem with the "criminal elements". Characteristics of an event, as the internal affairs of Russia, is an indication to the international community - "stay away", even the large-scale humanitarian catastrophe comes.
Dagestan is the undisputed leader of the ethnic conflict. In his detailed example can be traced all the complexity of the conflict vnutrikavkazskogo site. Ethnic conflict extends from the upper echelons of secular and religious power to ordinary village sports clubs wrestling.
In the modern Islamic revival in the reorientation of Daghestan on Muslim East play a significant role not only indigenous religious traditions, but also the legacy of Russian-Soviet period. No wonder the movement swept over the entire central and north-western mountains and foothills of Dagestan, where the Soviet policy of "national unity", has consistently pursued in the 30-80s, gave the best results. As you know, it led to the merging of small mountain 13 Ando-tsezskih people and archintsev with kindred Avars who have turned so the largest "nation" in Dagestan. Kaytagtsy Kubachins were combined with Dargins; peoples of the central highlands - with Laks. On the plane attached to terkementsev close to them in language and culture Kumyks. In the small mountain peoples Yuzhdage Tsakhurs Rutuls in 30-60s tried to merge with Lezgins, but to no avail. The consequence of this policy was the split of Dagestani Muslims in several large, competing with each other national communities. Between them became exceedingly, but, until recently, a hidden battle for dominance in the Soviet and party apparatus, which in turn won Lezgins in the 30s, the Azerbaijanis - to 40-s, and finally, the Avars - 50-80s.
National split of common Dagestan Muslim community is largely predetermined political sympathies and antipathies of the various Islamic movements and organizations. Muslims are mostly Avars lean on the government side, which is still heavily former nomenklatura Avar lobby. It is no accident, "Avar" Spiritual Administration in the past six months clearly in favor of cooperation with authorities, including the Federal Security Service , to successfully confront the radical Islamic opposition (the "reactionary Wahhabism"), which belong to the Muslim communities in those nations whose interests infringed. It is still have not achieved parity with the Avars Kumyks, Dargins, legziny, Laks.
The post-Soviet economic crisis has strengthened the traditional gap in development between the mountains and plains, many mountain residents migrated in a few cities, plains, and now half the population here are immigrants. Even before the resettlement of one national group in the other habitats threatened violation of stability.
However, the asymmetric unit in Dagestan creates some difficulties in the relations of collective and individual rights. While the "titular nations" (Avars, Dargins) are able to exercise their collective rights through the power of other nationalities do not have their "patrons of power." This creates problems for the realization of individual rights, as representatives of the "titular" nationalities have, for example, the benefits for getting a good (administrative, high-paying) job.
Migration processes greatly strengthened in the second half of the twentieth century, severely altered the ethno-demographic picture of the region and led to severe ethnic conflicts. In the north of Dagestan, Russian and Nogai actively displaced move from mountain Avars and Dargins. Particularly rapidly growing number of mountain people in the cities. Factor complicating the situation in the north, is the economic displacement of mountain sheep farms traditional viticulture and horticulture (the "Russian") and pastoral ("Nogai") farms in the region. Mountain farm in need of lowland pastures to maintain yaylazhnogo (pasture) cattle, have allocated to them Kutanov in Nogai steppe and in Kizlyar and Tarumovskom areas, resulting in an excessive burden Nogai grazing and destruction of the existing economic order, "the Russian-Cossack" areas.
Similar processes are observed in Central-East area of land and Kumyk akkintsev populate the Avars, Laks and Dargins. The process has put the deportation of the Chechens-akkintsev in 1944, when in former Auhovsky area, trimmed and renamed Novolakskoye Laks were resettled (1.2 thousand households) and Avars (0.5 thousand households). Since 1957 akkintsy, despite the obstruction by the authorities in Dagestan, have returned to their homeland. The situation was aggravated with relocation to the plains of Avars and Dargin, encouraged by the leadership of Dagestan, which has become particularly intense in the 70s - 80s (for agricultural settlers to charge higher prices paid, migrants stand out financial aid and building materials, provided social benefits, etc. .)
Regions and cities also have been targets of Kumyks migration and expansion of the Avars Dargin. As a result, active mountaineers share of resettlement in the central Kumyk (plains) region of Dagestan, in the 30s, is about 70% by the beginning of the 90s fell to 25%. According to researchers, Kumyk ethnic group lost its territory densely populated or is close to that. Dagestan continues to decline scope for Kumyk entrepreneurs, managers, and intellectuals. As the third largest nation of the republic, Kumyks believe that they are not adequately represented in management and administrative structures of Dagestan, and in recent decades, "passed" the leadership position in a number of areas of historical Kumyks.
Kumyk areas also experienced economic expansion of mountain farms, resulting in the beginning of the 90s 60.7% farmland and Khasavyurt Babayurtovskogo areas became available to cattle-herding mountain zone and in the mountain farms near Kizilyurt Gunibsky area occupied territories has the size of a 2-fold exceeds the land of the farms of the Kizilyurt district. More than 1 million hectares of land on the plain Kumyk was distributed as prikutannyh participants to pasture sheep Highlanders.
Ethno-demographic situation in Western and Southern regions is relatively stable - the ethnic territory of the Avars, Laks, Lezghins, Tabasaran, Ando-didoytsev and other mountain people are not attracted migrants from other parts of the country. The most acute problem is the overcrowding of the West and the high unemployment rate, and therefore the mountain area has become a source of mass migration. By the mid-90s outside of its historic range have lived about 43% of the Avar and approximately 40-45% of the Laks (percent migrated to the plains Dargin, probably even higher). Avars, Laks and Dargins are interested, first, to preserve the lands of the plain, they were able to settle in recent decades due to migration from the mountainous areas, and secondly, to preserve lowland pastures (Kutanov), which had been referred to the mountain farms reference pasture cattle.
Botlikh district is also one of the most disadvantaged from an economic point of view. More than 80% of the territory occupied by rocks, forests, rivers and places unsuitable for living. With such a shortage of land for habitat didoytsev (the main people of the Territory) in five different places of the district they began construction of large military installations federal in close proximity to human settlements and to the scarcest agricultural lands (arable lands, hayfields and pastures). There is oppression of many farmers and private farms area, which for centuries were engaged in agricultural production. Immediately followed and protest. In one of the Saturdays on the outskirts of Botlikh were about a thousand local residents and blocked the road leading to the construction of the cantonment. Botlihtsy were going to picket construction to complete preservation of the object. Interestingly the reaction of the population and categorical demands apology in front of Defense Minister Botlikh congregation for insult ("building of military camp due to the fact that in this area are popular ideas of Wahhabism"). Quotes of the protesters: "If a military town there still is built - a war will begin. Our youth now ready to fight for the land. But we have so far managed to restrain them"(2009).
In the early 90s due to the worsening situation in Georgia, densely populated with about 4 thousand Avars (in Kvareli region), in Dagestan has moved several thousand Georgian Avars. In the South, the main factor of instability is the problem of Lezghian irredentism separated by ethnic political boundaries. From 20s Lezgins were divided between the Dagestan ASSR and Azerbaijan. The problem worsened after the collapse of the Soviet Union, when Russian-Azerbaijani border has become an interstate, and therefore found it difficult communication between Dagestani and Azerbaijani communities in Lezgian.
Lack of land, high growth of population , migration pressures on the coastal plains of the Caspian Sea and from the Highlanders - all these are prerequisites for conflicts over land (the land for the construction and distillation of cattle to pasture). Conflicts usually end with stab or gunshot wounds of involved. To see the pictures of the scale of conflict, here are some of them in 2009:
- Novokare village, Babayurtovsky area. The reason for the incident served a division of property of former state farm. It all started near two o'clock, when about 400 residents gathered at a spontaneous rally. Residents of the village, therefore, began to demand from the former management of the farm their shares. Some have attempted to section of 500 head of cattle belonging to the farm. At this point, a fight ensued, which attempted to prevent police officers. As a result, one police officer was stabbed in the abdomen, the other - a head injury.
- Korkmaskala village. The seizure of the district administration building, the occasion - "a long time local officials cannot resolve issues related to the allocation of local people of land and allocate land
plots are not its citizens, and strangers, outsiders." 600 people were attended. One of the protesters had been shot in the chest.
- In the village Kakashura, Karabudakhkent area. The reason is the ownership of the poultry farm. The crowd of 500-600 people after the meeting decided to set fire to the house of owner's son of the local poultry farm. As a result, one person from a gunshot wound to the chest died and three others with gunshot and one with stab - were hospitalized.
Of course, if there is a huge potential for conflict, it cannot be limited only cases with a redistribution of the material. So the conflict between villagers Gerga on the one hand and Utamysh-Kayakent other hand (Kaiakent area), started just because of inconsistencies in the results of local competitions in freestyle wrestling. By over 1,500 people were attended. One person was killed (stabbed), four others suffered gunshot wounds of varying severity.
The most significant sites of conflict. The development of national movements in Dagestan is constantly accompanied by periodic exacerbations of ethnic conflicts and outbreaks of ethnic conflict, sometimes quite sharp. Ethnic conflict, according to the local, became a sort of "protest against the sharp difference in the lives of representatives of Dagestan". Most "hot" period were 1991-1992, when the acute form of acquired several conflicts between the largest ethnic groups in Dagestan Chechen-Lak, Chechen and Avar, paint and Kumyk, Avar, Kumyk, Dargin, Kumyk, and the conflict between Cossacks and mountain settlers.
Chechen- Lakst and Kumyk node of conflicts. The tension between the Chechens, on the one hand, and Laks and Avars - on the other, has intensified since 1989, when Chechens- akkintsy demanded the return of Auhovsky area, populated by Laks and Avars since 1944. After the establishment of Khasavyurt society "Memorial" a monument to victims of the deportation in 1944 in the village Novolakskoye gathered rallies of Laks and Avars, whose members recognized the establishment of the monument "a hotbed of tension and conflict" and demanded the deportation of Chechens-akkintsev in Shelkovskoi district of the Chechen-Ingush.
In April 1991, when the active speech of akkintsev, demanding implementation of the law "About rehabilitation of repressed peoples" and restore Auhovskogo area in Novolak and Khasavyurt area deteriorated sharply Chechen-Lak relations. Representatives of the Chechen and Lak public as a result of negotiations failed to reach an agreement: the Chechens agreed to wait, Laks decided to leave the area and move Novolakskoye Kizilyurt in the area where the economy Lak mountain areas were more than 8.5 hectares of land Kutan. The III rd Congress of People's Deputies of Daghestan legislatively approved the plan in July 1991 the deputies decided to restore the area and the Auhovskogo recreating Novolaks area in part of Kizilyurt district. In November 1991, Kizilyurt District Council with the approval of the Dagestani leadership secured the area created around Novolak a thousand acres of land, and in January 1992, the Russian government set the annual charges to Dagestan in 1992-1996 to finance the resettlement of displaced people in places Novolaks area of the new settlement .
However, the plan of resettlement Laks on plain Kumyk Kumyk caused sharp protests from the public. Back in 1990 Kumyk national movement "Tenglik" demanded the restoration of Kumtorkalinskogo district abolished in 1944 and passed by Coutant mountain farms of Lak area. The area allocated for the resettlement of Laks, included just these prikutannye sites. In the spring of 1992 was formed the Committee to Protect rights of the people deported Kumyk villages Tarki, Kyahulaya Alburikenta and that in order to prevent the relocation Laks, April 16, established camping on the disputed land . The Committee issued an ultimatum demanding the cessation of all activities related to resettlement and blockaded construction sites built houses for Laks, not allowing the builders to work. July 6, 1992 Milli Majlis supported the claim of Kumyk Committee and suggested that the Supreme Council of Dagestan to allocate land for Laks in the mountain zone.
Because of opposition of kumysk activists process of Laks resettlement and rehabilitation of Auhovskogo district has been suspended, that in the spring of 1992 led to an exacerbation of the Chechen-Lak relations. In April, the Chechens have set the pointer "Auhovsky area", whereupon the local District Council suspended the release the land for Chechen. Using the example of a Kumyk, Chechens defeated in the disputed lands the tents. Dialogue between akkinskimi and Lak movements actually is broken.
But in April 1992, negotiations began between Kumyk Lak and national organizations. May 7 Kumyk camp on the road Sulakskoy was disbanded. In the second round of talks May 12-29 could reduce tensions between the Laks and Kumyks and negotiate a resolution of all disputes by peaceful means, but the parties failed to resolve the underlying problem. Although resettlement of Laks in Kizilyurt District was continued, recovery of Auhovskogo area was almost derailed.
In September 1992 the worsening of the Chechen-Lak relations led to inter-ethnic conflict - a fight between groups of Laks and akkintsev in the village near Makhachkala September 3 resulted in a major collision with a firearm. In the area of conflict riot police and special forces were sent, and at night of September 6 in Khasav-Yurt district was introduced military unit of armor Corps of Russian troops. Arrival of Russian troops contributed to the unification of opposing national movements: akkinskie, Lak, Avar and Kumyk organizations during a rally in Khasav-Yurt, demanded the withdrawal of troops from the territory of Dagestan and resolution of international conflicts with negotiation.
Chechen-Avar conflic. Relations between Avars and Chechens akkintsami occurred in 1989-1990, when akkinskie organization demanded the restoration of Auhovskogo area. In contrast to the Laks, who agreed to move to new lands, Avars, flatly refused to discuss the return of two akkins villages - Aktas, Auha (from 1944 - Stalin-aul, in 1962 - Lenin-village) and Yurt Auha (from 1944 year - Kalinin-village) - which in 1944 were transferred to Kazbek district and settled by Avars.
In early September 1991, when by the decision of III Congress of People's Deputies of Daghestan began preparations for the restoration of Auhovskogo district the local authorities of the village Lenin began to hand Awarians land for individual construction. Chechens perceived actions of the village council as a provocation aimed at disrupting reconstruction of Auha. In Lenin village gathered rallies akkintsev, developed into an indefinite strike. Participants of the action required to stop the allocation of land to the settlement of territorial issues and hand over power in the region Auhovskogo to Organizing Committee to restore it. In response, Avar national organization (the Popular Front for the name of Shamil etc.) has announced the mobilization of the Avar militants.
September 11 authorities in Dagestan have entered a state of emergency in the Kazbek district, but this solution is only poured oil on the fire. On vacant lands, which were supposed to distribute the Avars, there was a tent camp akkintsev. September 17 members of the Avar NEFN organizations, "Jamaat" and the Islamic Renaissance Party demanded the abolition of the law "About rehabilitation of repressed peoples" and resolutions of the III Congress of People's Deputies of Dagestan to restore Auhovsky area. By mid-September there was a threat of armed clashes between akkins and Avar militants.
Only the intervention of the Acting Chairman of the Supreme Soviet of RSFSR Ruslan Khasbulatov (Chechen) and chairman of the Supreme Soviet of Nationalities, Ramazan Abdulatipov (Avar) prevented the collision. September 24 under the mediation of Khasbulatov was held a conciliation meeting between the Avars and akkints, which came to an agreement "to resolve the issue of return of Chechen-akkintsev in empty houses and residence address the issues of citizens having the right to do it," and also agreed to negotiate the division of land and "expedite the decision of vacant plots that were previously home-akkintsev Chechens." The situation in the Kazbek district quickly stabilized, and after just three days after signing the protocol akkinsko-Avar state of emergency was lifted.
However, the problem of the return of Chechens in the Kazbek district almost was not resolved. Despite the promise of Avar hand, the authorities of the Kazbek district blocked actually an agreement to return akkintsev to empty houses and to transfer them vacant land.
Kumyk- Avar conflict. In early 1992, in the Khasav-Yurt between Kumyks and Avars were strained. Kumyks were unhappy with the increasing number of immigrants from the Avar mountain areas and increase their political activity, the Avars did not like what Kumyks, constituting 25-26% of the Khasavyurt district, occupy 46-47% of leadership positions in local government.
The reason for the speech was a message of approval to the post of Minister of Internal Affairs of Dagestan M. Abdurazakova, many Dagestani "informal people" accused him in incompetence (M. Abdurazakov was a former first secretary of the Dagestan regional committee of Komsomol), and the connivance of the criminals (the appointment of M. Abdurazakova as interior minister coincided a sharp increase in crime and detection of hard crime has fallen almost to zero).
In 1991 the 22nd of October in protest against the appointment of the Minister of Internal Affairs M. Abdurazakova thousands of activists Kumyk national movement "Tenglik" blocked railroad and highway Rostov - Baku district Khasav-Yurt, in the enterprises of Khasav-Yurt, Buinaksk, Kizilyurt solidarity strikes were begun. Participants of the action created a tented camp and demanded the leadership of Dagestan to dismiss all the leaders of law enforcement agencies and first Abdurazakova M., to form government of national confidence with the democratic and national movements, to call early elections to the Supreme Soviet of Dagestan.
The next day after the start of the campaign "Tenglikyurt" at the call of the Popular Front behalf of Shamil, some thousands of Avars blocked the central square in Makhachkala and demanded the Republican leadership "restore order", threatening to force the participants blockaded the road. Such a strong reaction of NEFN to the speech of Kumyk, which does not affect the interests of the Avar communities can be explained, firstly, the desire to demonstrate Kumyk Avar radical minority, "who is master in Dagestan", and secondly, the desire to use the slogan of support for fellow countryman (M. Abdurazakov - an ethnic Avar) to enhance the image of NEFN and mobilizing the masses under his banner.
The same day, several hundred of activists NEFN, armed with machine guns and batons, on trucks and cars went to the tent camp Kumyk. The protesters marched from the camp to meet them. The clash was prevented by employees of the local police, who stood between Avar and Kumyk groups.
The threat from radical Avar provoked a reaction from Kumyk population: by the 1st of November "Tenglikyurt" has grown to 30 thousand people, and by the end of November in the action of KND (CVP) involving about 200 thousand people. November the 21st women from Kumyk areas in solidarity with the picketers started a hunger strike. The action of Kumyk movement backed national organizations of Chechen-akkintsev, Dargin, Azeris, as well as the Social Democratic Party of Dagestan, the Islamic Democratic Party of Dagestan, the Dagestani branch of the Islamic Party of Revival.
The conflict situation in the north of Dagestan. The cause of the conflict in the north of Dagestan was the tension between the Russian-Cossack population and migrants from the mountainous areas in Kizlyar district of Dagestan, which was emerged in the 80s. The initiators of strained relations were Kizlyar Cossack organization and the local and municipal authorities.
Kizlyar Division ( from August 1993 - DC), the Terek Cossack Army was reconstituted in October 1990, its membership includes not only the Cossacks and the Russian "nonresident" and even some non-Slavic population of the representatives of Kizlyar and Tarumovsky areas. The main purpose of the department has been proclaimed the "restoration and preservation of the Cossacks as a people having equal rights to freedom of expression, along with other nations." Cossacks demanded the national authorities to stop the migration and the economic expansion of Dagestani highlanders (Avar, Dargin, Laks) in the north and to take measures to ensure equality and security of the Russian-speaking population. In 1991-1992, local authorities of Kizlyar and Tarumovsky districts decide to limit the registration of "citizens of non-Russian" and the ban on registration of sale houses and the allocation of land to settlers from other parts of Dagestan.
In February 1993, the leadership of the Kizlyar district launched an appeal to the Supreme Council of Dagestan, which has demanded the return of Cossack lands, the introduction of Cossack self-government (in the form of ataman Board) and termination of migration the Highlanders on 'Cossack' areas. Leadership of Dagestan did not respond to treatment. June the 19th 1993 Kizlyar department sent an open letter to the leaders of the Russian Federation (President Yeltsin, Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin, Chairman of the Supreme Soviet R. Khasbulatov and the head of the State Committee S. Shakhrai) to consider giving the Northern Dagestan status of independent District.
The 23rd of June 1993 session of the Kizlyar City Council supported the demands of the Cossacks of the northern region of Dagestan, giving "special powers of socio-economic area, taking into account the rehabilitation and revival of the Cossacks to the traditional methods of farming," and demanded a strengthening of the rights of local authorities in dealing with personnel matters and the allocation of republican budget for a fund "Stabilization", aimed at stopping the migration of Russian-speaking population.
The 24th of June dozens of militants of Avar National Front name of Shamil and Lak mouvement "Ghazi Kumukh" arrived from Makhachkala, stormed the city council Kizlyar and took hostage two employees of military Commissariat and city police inspector. The participants of an attack demanded the release two local residents arrested by the city’s the police, and bring out the town special forces of the Russian Interior Ministry.
Following this, in the enterprises and organizations of Kizlyar, where work is mainly Russian-speaking population, were organized meetings, participants are asked to place the Russian special forces in the city to fully stabilize. Cossack community leaders have demanded the creation of Kizlyar "Cossack municipal police," and in case of omission of the republican authorities threatened to raise the question of withdrawal of Kizlyar and Tarumovsky districts of Dagestan and the composition of their accession to the Stavropol Territory. At the same time among the Cossacks and the Russian-speaking population of these areas has begun collecting signatures on a petition to join the Stavropol had begun.
In early July, Russian Interior Ministry special forces unit was withdrawn from Kizlyar and entered the national riot police. In response, the local Slavic movement "Russia" and Cossack activists convened a meeting of citizens, who demanded the return of special forces and urged citizens to "unite for joint resistance to the criminals." The organized movement of "Russia" "round table" adopted an appeal to President Boris Yeltsin, which described the situation of Russian speakers in Dagestan and was requested to join the northern districts of the republic to the Stavropol Territory.
National movements and organizations of the Dagestani peoples, united by the time of the Congress of Peoples of Dagestan, condemned the requirement for rejection of the northern regions of the republic as a "provocative" and protested to the Russian authorities about the arms of the Cossacks and the establishment of administrative Cossack territories.
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Kabardino-Balkaria and Karachay-Cherkessia.
Manifestation of the most dangerous trends in the environment of the Caucasus ethnic groups, divided by administrative boundaries, may be the desire of Kabardins, Circassians, Adyghe, the Abkhaz to revise the territorial boundaries of the subjects of the Russian Federation and the union under a single independent republic, which has a larger territory than the current area of settlement of these peoples. In particular, much of the Krasnodar region is as part of the territory of "Greater Cherkessia". These aspirations are reflected in the revitalization of historical and demographic studies that aim to prove the ownership of these territories to its range before the period of settlement of the peoples of the Caucasian War, as well as individual statements of some leaders of the Circassian community organizations.
If it is theoretically possible, this situation will be fraught with intense change in the ethnic composition of the population in the territories of the proposed new subjects of the Federation, the erosion of existing ethnostatus relations, violation of cultural distance in inter-ethnic communication, as well as a violation of existing economic ties, which contribute to inter-ethnic conflicts and promote their transition from the latent stage to the stage of an update.
Even seemingly neutral in their content in the republics of the municipal reform has already led to political instability: the accession of areas of densely populated by representatives of the Abaza and Balkar ethnic groups to major cities was perceived as a threat and gave into the hands of radical new arguments and expanded their ranks.
The most significant effects include conflict activities of social organizations (conflict social movements of Adyghe and Abkhaz peoples of Turkic groups). Voice of Cossack organizations of the republics which expresses the desire of their own "territorial definition" (Batalpashinskaya and Zelenchuk-Urupskiy Republic) in 1990 can not be taken into account. With a decrease the total number of Russian in the NC today it is almost inaudible.
Start started from 1990. When Karachay socio-political movement called for restoration of a single republic in the Karachay in 1943 including land of Cossack villages of Stavropol Territory. At the founding congress of "Congress of Karachay people" some 700 delegates from the villages and villages of the republic, which is traditionally dominated by Karachai people were attende. In contrast to the previously existing community and national organizations, Congress assumes to be comprehensive, emphasizing ethnocentrism Karachay people. As the elected chair claimed: "Congress will have the highest social and political competence, as the body of covering the constitutional rights of the people as a source of power and the bearer of sovereignty, will make decisions and acts that implement the right of nations to self-determination."
Circassian organizations aimed at improving the status of its title and the creation (restoration) separate from the Republic of Karachay and \ or \ union with Kabarda, Adygea, Shapsugia and Abkhazia in the Great Cherkessia, which, in addition to the existing boundaries, also captures the Krasnodar and Stavropol. Controversy continued in 2009, the leader of the NGO "Circassian Congress" was severely beaten. In Moscow, from the 26th to the 29th of October that year there were series of pickets organized by the arrivals of Kabardino-Balkaria, representatives of the Balkar people who wanted to draw the attention of the metropolitan community and the federal government for failure by the authorities of the Republic Law "On the Rehabilitation of Repressed Peoples" and the Law № 131 "on general principles of local self-government in Russia. "As the outstanding issues Balkars referred to the restoration of Balkar Hulmo-Bezengievskogo district, the return of status of the Balkar villages Khasanya and the White River, and a full return of lands assigned to the inter-settlement areas.
However, disputes and conflicts are not only between the titular peoples. In the summer of 1997 the republic's parliament adopted a decision on eviction of Chechens, while among the five thousand, among them there were many opponents of Dudayev- Maskhadov’s regime. After a stabilization of the situation in Chechnya, since 2004 a small part of the Chechens migrated to their homeland, but the tensions with remaining there is day.