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6.4.1. North Ossetia - Ingushetia.
Today's most lightweight of inciting conflict. Republic of Ingushetia has been around for 17 years, but until now it has no legally binding limits, even the border with Ossetia is disputed by the Constitution of Ingushetia itself. Virtually the entire population, as Ingushetia and North Ossetia find the right bank of the Terek (part of Vladikavkaz) as their homeland.
Reason. The emergence of the Ingush-Ossetian conflict is associated with the events of February 1944, when the Chechens and Ingush were deported to Central Asia, and the territory of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was split between Georgia and North Ossetia and Stavropol region of Russia. The composition of SOASSR were then included almost all the lands that make up the historic territory of Ingushetia Malgobek, Nazran, Achaluksky, Psedahsky, suburban areas and the western part of the Sunzha district. Due to these lands the territory of North Ossetia has nearly doubled. In March 1944 the North Ossetian government established a special commission for the settlement of Ingush land, displaced people from South Ossetia had been transferred to all the property of deported Ingush (houses, livestock, agricultural and farm buildings, etc.) allocated to the loan arrangement at the new location, etc. n.
In January 1957, the Chechen-Ingush ASSR was restored, but the suburban district remained a part of North Ossetia, which was the cause of the current Ingush-Ossetian conflict.
In the early 90's representatives of North Ossetia advanced version of that "instead of the Suburban Area" in the Chechen-Ingush Republic in 1957 were transferred Naur and Shelkovskaya districts of the Stavropol Territory (until 1957 these areas were part of Grozny and in the recovery CHIASSR along with the entire area was included in the country). However, the transfer of these regions can not be considered as "compensation" for the suburban area, as referred to the territory inhabited by the Cossacks, Chechens and Nogais, their inclusion in the Chechen-Ingush ASSR could not solve and not solve the territorial issue or the Ingush people, no problem returning the historic lands of Ingushetia (with the same reason we can say that "instead of" Suburban district of North Ossetia was given Mozdok District Stavropol).
Ingush public began to raise the issue of returning the Suburban Area in the late 50s - early 60s. In the 60s, with activists from the Ingush national movement with statements about the need to solve the problem of Suburban Region local dissidents Alexei Kosterin and Khalid Oshaev spoke .
The first crisis caused by the growing of problem of the Suburban Area, has matured in the early 70s. In December 1972 a group of prominent representatives of Ingush intellectuals sent to the Central Committee and the Presidium of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR open letter "about the fate of the Ingush people", where on 80 pages setting out the arguments the Ingush side on the issue of Suburb were set out. This appeal was characterized by ideological experts of CPSU and the KGB as "nationalist", after which its authors would be repressed. However, the attempt to organize the "people's condemnation of" the open letter has caused the opposite effect - among the Ingush setting out public movement for the restoration of the historic lands of Ingushetia.
The 16th of January 1973 in Grozny on Lenin Square (in front of the Chechen-Ingush regional committee of the Communist Party) thousands Ingush national rally was gathered, members of which demanded to abolish discrimination against the Ingush in North Ossetia, and to consider the return of the Suburban area. Organizers of the meeting emphasized using the semi-official communist symbols, the red flags, portraits of Lenin and Brezhnev, the slogans of internationalism and friendship between peoples. Chairman of the RSFSR Council of Ministers Mikhail Solomentsev, arrived in Grozny "understand" and promised that Moscow would consider Suburb question and that the protesters will not be prosecuted. By January the 18th, almost all the protesters have dispersed, in Lenin Square there were a few hundred young Ingush who did not believe the promises. Early in the morning of the 19th of January, they were dispersed by water from fire hoses and police batons.
After breaking up the meeting on the 16th the 19th of January 1973 the authors of the open letter "about the fate of the Ingush people" and many active participants in the rally were convicted or dismissed from their jobs. In the Chechen-Ingush a broad "company to combat nationalism" was started during which the Ingush intelligentsia felt repressions .
The second crisis in the Ingush-Ossetian relations erupted after ten years in the early 80s. October the 24th 1981 funeral of Ossetian taxi driver, whose murder attributed to the Ingush, resulted in a spontaneous rally in Ordzhonikidze (now - Vladikavkaz), whose members demanded a new eviction of Ingush. The rally turned into protests against the Republican leadership, which were suppressed by special military units and cadets of Ordzhonikidze.
The new, third crisis of Ingush-Ossetian conflict began in the late 80s. Taking advantage of perestroika and glasnost, representatives of the Ingush intelligentsia once again raised the question of the need to restore the integrity of the historic lands of Ingushetia. In 1988-1989 in Ingush areas of Chechen-Ingush ASSR there was a movement for the return of the Suburban area, which soon gained nationwide support for the Ingush people. Since the late 80s the question of returning the Suburban Area has become a major issue of the Ingush national movement.
The severity of the problem of Suburban area is explained for several reasons. The first thing to note is that the territory of the district, formerly known as the Large and Small Ingush, is about one-third of historic Ingush lands. This part was the center of Ingushetia, the Ingush nation formation in the late XVIII - early XIX century, during the last two centuries was the center of political, economic and cultural life of Ingushetia. Here about four dozen Ingush villages were located, including the largest village in Ingushetia, such as village Bazorkino (now - Chermen), which Ossetians themselves called "Ingush Moscow" and in which the Ingush were going to national conventions, the village Angusht (now - Tarskoye) where Russian ethnonym "Ingush" came from. The fertile lowlands of the Suburban Area in the early twentieth century played a role of Ingush barns here produced about half of all agricultural products of Ingushetia by this product residents of mountainous regions of Ingushetia could normally live, who does not provide themselves with food. An important factor is the fact that many of the Authoritative Ingush families whose representatives have a significant influence on the political situation in the country, come from large villages of Suburban Region (Bazorkino, Yandiyev Gadaborsheva, Angusht, Ahki-Yurt, Yurt Gilgal, Upper and Lower and Lars etc.) and, of course, particularly interested in getting this part of Ingushetia.
Given the role played by suburban district in the process of ethnogenesis of Ingush, political, cultural and economic development of Ingush nation, and taking into account the factor of "family nest" and "the graves of ancestors," which has great importance for all peoples of the Caucasus, representatives of the Ingush national intelligence believe that without the return of its historic center (that is, the Suburban area) Ingush nation is doomed to degradation, and this in a unitary Chechnya-Ingushetia could lead to the assimilation of the Ingush.
Finally, it should be noted that the radical demands for the return of the Suburban District is largely triggered by discrimination of the Ingush in North Ossetia. Firmly in the final annexation of the Suburban district leadership of NOASSR with the support of federal authorities tried to stop the return of the Ingush in the suburban area after cancel special relocation and restoration of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Republic.
In 1956, the Council of Ministers of North Ossetia, took secret order number 063, according to which just forbidden "... institutions and individuals to sell a house or rent an apartment dwelling under the Ingush village of returnees, in the case of those already acquired the houses, to recognize the purchase documentation and sale void. "This act gave the right to evict the authorities of the autonomous republic of Ingush from the Suburban area just because of their nationality.
Despite the opposition of the authorities NOASSR, Ingush during the 60s - early 70s actively penetrated in the suburban area and bought homes (often by others, or draw up documents for a bribe). After the presentation of the Ingush in 1973 in North Ossetia began, "squeezing" the Ingush by overt discrimination in employment, in schools, for promotion, etc. Events in 1981 became an occasion for the introduction of new restrictions. At the insistence of management of NOASSR Council of Ministers of the USSR the 5th of March 1982 passed a special resolution (№ 183) of the "special regime" registration and sale of houses in the Suburbs area and have been used by local authorities to discriminate against the Ingush. As a result of these acts of 60000th Ingush population of the official residence of NOASSR was only half of the population. Restrictions on registration, in turn, hampered the unit to a permanent job, receiving social security benefits, etc. The 14th of September 1990 the Supreme Council of North Ossetia, took the third order prohibiting throughout the country buying and selling houses and other buildings on the right of private property. The appeal of the USSR Prosecutor General's Office authority of NOASSR ignored.
Exacerbation. Treatment and the Ingush public performances of Soviet and international human rights organizations against civil rights violations and discrimination against ethnic Ingush in North Ossetia, drew the attention of the Union and the Russian centers to the problem of the Suburban area. Since 1989 in the Chechen-Ingushetia and North Ossetia have worked numerous commissions (Council of Ministers of the RSFSR Supreme Soviet of the USSR Supreme Soviet of the RSFSR State Committee on National Issues, etc.), who studied the issue of restoration of the Ingush autonomy.
Most revealing in this regard, the commission for consideration of appeals of the Ingush population, which was established in March 1990 by the Council of Nationalities of the Supreme Soviet of the USSR - the so-called "commission Belyakov" (Chairman was a Deputy of the USSR, the RSFSR State Committee head of National Affairs, Anatoly Belyakov). Having considered the matter and having heard the arguments of both sides, the commission in November 1990 decided that "the demands of the Ingush people, the return of the Chechen-Ingush ASSR Suburban area within its boundaries in 1944 and other territories formerly part of the Chechen-Ingush Autonomous Soviet Socialist Republic, have reason to be review by the Supreme Soviet of the USSR ... " The Commission also demanded to abolish the act of Council of Ministers of the USSR on the Limitation of residence in the Suburb and other discriminatory acts.
In spite of certain findings of the commission, the central government virtually did nothing to solve the problem and stabilize the situation. By the spring of 1991 the aggravation of interethnic relations has led to appearance the centers of two conflicts: the Ossetian-Ingush in the Suburb and the Ingush-Cossack in the Sunzha district.
The Government of North Ossetia and the official ideology of the republic tried to justify the historical rights to the annexed territory of NOASSR using "Cossack map." In particular, it was argued that the territory of the Suburban District is a "native Cossack land" and that the Ingush had lived on these lands, only 23 years, from 1921 (when there was a relocation of the Cossack villages Sunzhensky department) until 1944. North Ossetian region Committee initiated in Vladikavkaz, the movement for the revival of the Terek Cossacks, whose leaders, who took from the very beginning a sharp anti-Ingush position, picked up the thesis of the "original Cossack land."
In fact, in the Suburban Area in the past have been located only four villages and a Cossack village Sunzha line have been located, moreover, in the place of destroyed Ingush village: Tara village - in place of the village Angusht, Sunzha village - in place of the village Akhi-Yurt , Field-Marshal's village - on the Alhaste village, village Vorontsov-Dashkovskaya - on-site village Tauzen-Yurt, a village Tara - on-site village Sholhi. At the same time, the Ingush had here about 40 villages.
Activation of the Cossack movement and its opposition to the rehabilitation of the Ingush, as well as discrimination against the Ingush in the Suburb have led to increased tensions in the Sunzha district of the Chechen-Ingushetia and North Ossetia Suburb. In April 1991, in the village Kurtat Suburban area, clashes broke out between groups of Ingush and Ossetians in the village of Troitskaya Sunzha district - between groups of Ingush and the Cossacks. The 19th the 20th of April, the government of North Ossetia and introduced in Vladikavkaz Suburb area an emergency, which was regularly extended until November 1992.
The regim of emergency was used by the authorities of NOASSR to increase pressure on the Ingush diaspora and to create national armed forces. A state of emergency has allowed the leadership of North Ossetia, in essence, restored the discriminatory restrictions on residence in the Ingush. The power of the
autonomous republic was forced to cancel these limits after findings the commission's Belyakov. Just a few days after the state of emergency, the 23rd of April 1991, the Supreme Court of North Ossetia has decided to evict the Ingush, "willfully" having descended to their empty houses in suburban areas. The next day in Vladikavkaz and Suburban areas the units of the USSR Interior Ministry troops were arrived to provide emergency in the area. The final break between the Ingush and the Ossetians was marked by the stormy session of the Supreme Council of NOSSR the 29th of April, during which the MPs and Ingush, outraged invective against the Ingush people, by the representatives of the leadership of North Ossetia, demonstratively left the session.
The crisis of power in the USSR and the general weakening of central government control over local authorities after the coup failed putsch allowed management of North Ossetia in late 1991 to begin the creation of national armed forces.
At the beginning of November 1991 in Vladikavkaz was founded Union border supply, and on the 14th of November special session of the Supreme Council adopted a resolution on the establishment of Presidium of the Supreme National Committee for defense of North Ossetia, under the chairmanship of the Supreme Council Akhsarbek Galazov to "protect the sovereignty and territorial integrity" of the country. Supreme Council State Committee has given self-defense (GKSO) emergency powers and ordered him to form the Republican Guard. Neither then nor later, when in the North Ossetia have been established units of the Republican Guard and the "militia", the Russian government, federal law enforcement authorities have not reacted to the creation of illegal government and armed forces, openly directed against the claims of a neighboring people. Sudden "blindness" of the Russian authorities, in other cases very sensitive to the creation of illegal units, can be explained by the fact that certain forces in the Russian government, apparently hoping to use the North Ossetian fighters to intervene in ethnic conflicts in Georgia (particularly in South Ossetia ) and thus obtain a means of pressure on the "naughty" the Georgian leadership. An indirect confirmation of this version is an active part in the creation of the Republican Guard Gen. Kim Tsagolov, who later became Deputy Minister for Nationalities Affairs of the Russian Federation.
In late 1991 early 1992's the first elements of the Republican Guard and the "militia" SOSSR were formed and enhanced paramilitary units of the North Ossetian OMON. In May 1992 the Republican Guard was subordinated directly to the leadership of the Supreme Council of North Ossetia, on the 21st of May, the Supreme Council passed a resolution forcing the production of weapons at the enterprises of Vladikavkaz to equip Guard and the "militia". Then Supreme Council decided to "nationalize" the 13th and 14th military towns of Vladikavkaz, and in June began an attack on military depots of Russian troops to seize weapons and ammunition (one of these attacks, the 11th the 12th of June, according to the Russian prosecutor's office , personally directed the Prime Minister of South Ossetia A. Teziev). Simultaneously, the Russian establishment intimidated by "Muslim threat", he intimates the idea that North and South Ossetia are almost the only strong point of Russian influence in the Caucasus. Under the influence of this propaganda in the Russian corridors of power shape the theory of "friendly nations" that facilitate the spread of Russian influence in the Caucasus (among them, of course, attributed the Ossetians), and "hostile nations" to counteract this effect (the latter considered the Chechens and, at the same time, Ingush). Apparently, this "theory" and the South Ossetian and Chechen factors are the reason that the Russian leadership not only winked at the creation of paramilitary groups in Northern Ossetia, but also contributed to their arms.
In June 1992 the Supreme Council of NOSSR adopted to discuss bills that actually legalizing the existence of his own Republican Army in the form of "self-defense forces." The curator of the "Self-Defense Forces' chief of staff of the State Committee was self-defense of North Ossetia, Major-General Stanislaw Xuan, who at that time was elected one of the Vice-President of the Supreme Council. In August 1992, the Russian military handed over to "self-defense forces" in North Ossetia, a large number of automatic weapons, armored vehicles, install the "Grad" and "Alazan." Speaking at a meeting of the Supreme Council of the republic, urged Akhsarbek Galazov cancel the decision of Deputies on the 21st of May (on the forced production of weapons factories of Vladikavkaz), as "the Republic has received a sufficient number of weapons from Russia."
Also in August, in the Interior Ministry of North Ossetia held a meeting on "The beginning of the intensive training of armed action and tasks of employees of Suburban police department stemming from this," which was led by Interior Minister of NOSSR Georgi Cantemirov. In the next meeting the republican OMON staff was increased to 5 times, up to 1 thousand people.
By October 1992 the Interior Ministry of North Ossetia has more than a thousand rifles, 113 grenade launchers, 11 anti-aircraft installations, 68 large-guns, 36 armored personnel carriers, more than a thousand grenades. At the armed of Republican Guard by official (obviously understated) a given number of 826 machines, 23 machine guns and grenade launchers, 53 armored personnel carriers, four armored personnel carriers.
It should be noted that the Ingush side since the spring of 1992 also created its own militia. Despite assurances from the leaders of the National Council of Ingushetia, who asserted that the issue of the Suburban area and the right-bank part of Vladikavkaz would be resolved in favor of the Russian leadership of the Ingush to the end of 1992, the Ingush population of the Suburban Area in May, began to create their own self-defense units (in villages Mayskoe, Kurtat, Dachnoe and others), which in numbers, in the equipment and organization were certainly not comparable to the "self-defense forces" of North Ossetia.
By the fall of 1992, in the Ingush-Ossetian zone of conflict an armed confrontation has developed. In mid-October, paramilitary raids of Ossetian OMON in villages of Suburban Region (official purpose is the removal of illegally held weapons) led to local clashes the Ingush OMON with youth and a new round of confrontation. After the 24th of October as a result of these raids in the village and the village of South Suburban Region Chernorechenskaya five Ingush were killed, in Ingush villages in the Suburban District began arming the people, forming new self-defense units and the construction of fences, barricades in the rural outskirts. The 24th of October in Nazran the joint session of the three district Ingushetia councils and the Ingush deputy group of Prigorodskogo District Council "to protect their relatives in North Ossetia," decided "to join volunteers in self-defense units and to organize their duty in all localities of the Suburban District of North Ossetia, where Ingush live ". Guide units of self-defense were entrusted to the departments of internal affairs of the three districts of Ingushetia.
The 26th of October there was a meeting of senior representatives of North Ossetia with the leaders of the Ingush People's Council deputies Vladikavkaz city council and representatives of the Ingush public Suburban District, in which the head of the Supreme Council of NOSSR Akhsarbek Galazov actually issued an ultimatum, demanding that the Ingush population by the 30th of October will disarm and dismantle the barricades on the outskirts of villages. Otherwise, head of the republic threatened to carry out operations to disarm the militias by the Ingush republican paramilitaries.
At the end of October (the 28th the 30th of October), armed groups of North Ossetia got from the Russian leadership another large shipment of armored vehicles and weapons. Order on transfer of arms Russian Prime Minister Yegor Gaidar gave on behalf of President Yeltsin, the transfer of weapons was led by Deputy Prime Minister and Chairman George Khizha State and head of Committee for Emergency Situations Sergei Shoigu. The 28th of October at meeting of the Russian Security Council decided to establish a unified command of federal troops and national "self-defense forces" in the territory of North Ossetia. It is not
excluded that these steps of the Russian leadership were the detonators of outbreak of armed conflict on the 31st of October .
Conflict. The 31st of October 1992 in the Suburb area collision of Ingush units of self-defense and paramilitary of NOSSR clashed. Parties to the conflict in different ways describe the initiation of military action, accusing each other of unprovoked aggression. The Ossetian side claims that the Ingush militants from villages Suburban Region with the assistance of the detachment of Nazran, tried to seize the right-bank part of Vladikavkaz and suburban areas. Representatives of Ingushetia believe that the conflict unleashed by "forces of self-defense"of NOSSR that at night the 31st of October, attacked the self-defense of Ingush villages of Suburban District (as promised A. Galazov during a meeting the 26th of October).
According to estimates of most observers, the clashes between Ossetians and Ingush October the 31st - November 5th 1992 were triggered nature. Experts Human Rights Centre "Memorial", an alliance of "The Shield" as well as a former head of the State Committee on Nationalities of Russia, Academician Valery Tishkov, Russian scholars and journalists, Sergey Belozertsev, Lyudmila Duvanova, Irina Dementieva, Ludmila Leontieva, each of whom held their independent investigation into the events of November in the Suburb, argue that the fall of 1992 took place not ethnic conflict, and well-planned and well-prepared military action to rid the area of the Suburban from Ingush population - "ethnic cleansing" in the preparation of which, along with the leadership of North Ossetia, Russian leaders of MIA Ministry of Defence, State Committee for Emergency Situations, as well as command of the North Caucasian Military District have actively participated. Directly "ethnic cleansing" was directed by head of NOSSR Akhsarbek Galazov and Interior Minister Georgi Cantemirov. Journalists noted the active participation in the organization of military action against the Ingush Deputy Prime Minister George Hizhi, chairman of the State Committee for Emergency Situations Sergei Shoigu, his deputy, Colonel General Gennady Filatov, Deputy Minister Anatoly Safonov, Russian Security, Interior Troops Commander Colonel-General Vasily Savvin, commander of the North Caucasus Military District, Colonel-General Lev Shustko and other representatives of the Russian leadership and the generals.
The fact of intervention of Russian troops in the Ingush-Ossetian conflict on the side of the armed forces of North Ossetia, has no doubt. In the evening the 2nd of November with the assistance of Russian troops and Republican Guard "militia" of NOSSR, as well as fighters from South Ossetia actually started the implementation of the ethnic cleansing of the Ingush region Suburban population. According to eyewitnesses, the first echelon of Russian troops moved to the Ingush village of firing artillery guns and armored vehicles, forcing units Ingush self-defense. Following them were the units of the North Ossetian "defense forces" that are actually carried out ethnic cleansing, killing Ingush and burning their houses. The third echelon moved South Ossetian militants and civilians "volunteers" - the Ossetians, were engaged in looting, hostage-taking, catching refugees Indications of Ingush refugees from Vladikavkaz and suburban areas forced to conclude that the operation of ethnic cleansing of the Ingush population of North Ossetia was planned and organized in advance detachments of the representatives of the republican Ministry of Internal Affairs and Ossetian "defense forces", take hostages and destroying Ingush homes were on hand not only a plan showing the houses belonged to the Ingush, and complete lists of Ingush families (up to the elderly and infants).
According to the Prosecutor of the Russian Federation, during the armed conflict from October the 31st to November 5th 1992 were killed 583 people, including 350 Ingush and 192 Ossetian, were missing 261 people, including 208 of the Ingush and 37 Ossetians, injuring 939 people, including 457 Ingush and 379 Ossetian, 1093 people were taken hostage, including 708 Ingush and 289 Ossetians. In Suburb 2728 Ingush and 848 Ossetian houses were destroyed, and many buildings of socio-cultural sphere.
Consequences. Till November 1992 on the territory of North Ossetia, more than 65 thousand Ingush lived, mostly in Vladikavkaz and suburban areas. Due to the obstacles created by the authorities of North Ossetia in registration of citizens of Ingush nationality (the above-mentioned acts of 1957, 1982, 1990), just over half living in the republic of Ingush had an official residence: 33 thousand people, including the villages of the Suburban Area - about 18 thousand people
Ingush lived in 17 settlements of the Suburban area, as well as in Vladikavkaz. In some villages (Tara, Chermen) Ingush and Ossetian communities were living compact in different parts of the village and in other villages lived predominantly Ingush (Mayskoe, Dachnoe, Chernorechenskaya, Kartsa), and in many cases, the ethnic composition of the population was mixed and dominated quantitatively or Ossetians (Dongaron , Kambileevskoe, Octiabrskoe, Ujniy), or Ingush (Kurtat, Turk, Redant).
By mid-November 1992 the Ingush were only in three of the 17 settlements Suburban Region: village Mayskoe, village Kartsa and the alpine village Ezmi. Part of Ingush houses was destroyed in the fighting, but the vast majority of homes have been destroyed after the Russian army and Ossetian Ingush population drove the formation of the Suburban area. Demolitions carried out militants Ossetian formations, among which stand out particularly active members of South Ossetian groups ("Armored Division") "Ir." The Russian administration and the military command did not prevent the destruction of houses.
As a result of hostilities in late October - early November 1992 the Russian troops and Ossetian ethnic cleansing carried out the formation of the Suburban Area: more than 60 thousands of Ingush from North Ossetia have fled to Ingushetia. Territorial Migration Service of Ingushetia has officially registered 64 thousand refugees from North Ossetia.
Refugees make up about 25-30% of the resident population of Ingushetia. Most of the refugees (70%) live with relatives, in addition, in Ingushetia there are 10 collective centers for refugees ("City"). Because of the lack of facilities Migration Service of the Republic was forced to place some of the refugees in government buildings, businesses (shops, farms, electrical substations), community facilities (clubs, kindergartens, homes, children's art houses), which is absolutely not suited for long-term human habitation.
Most able-bodied refugees are unemployed: for example, from 23 thousand able-bodied refugees registered with the Federal Migration Service in 1994 were unemployed 17.7 thousand people or more than 77%.
The presence in Ingushetia, working-age population is about one-third are unemployed, a significant number of refugees, more than three-quarters of whom are also unemployed, and turns into a serious destabilizing factor.
The authorities of the Republic of Ingushetia demand the return of refugees to their former homes, Reparations and ensure their safety and civil rights. The authorities in North Ossetia till spring of 1993 refused to consider options for the return of Ingush refugees to suburban area, putting forward the thesis of "the impossibility of coexistence," the Ingush and the Ossetians. Under pressure from the leadership of the Russian Federation in March 1993, Vladikavkaz, has agreed to negotiate the return of refugees.
The 20th of March 1993 in Kislovodsk, president of Ingushetia, Ruslan Aushev and North Ossetia Akhsarbek Galazov signed an agreement, which pledged together to solve the problem of returning refugees, based on the principle of voluntary return. In the first phase expected to return to their former places of residence of citizens who had a documented residence. Soon, however, authorities of North Ossetia in fact refused to carry out the reached agreements and returned to the principle of "the impossibility of living together."
December 7th 1993 in Nalchik, was held a meeting of leaders of the republics and regions of the North Caucasus under the chairmanship of Russian President Boris Yeltsin. After discussing the problems that have arisen in connection with the Ossetian-Ingush conflict, the meeting outlined a number of measures to stabilize the situation, including:
- Refusal of the Ingush side of territorial claims in suburban areas; refusal to change the existing borders between the subjects of the Russian Federation; review articles of the federal law "About rehabilitation of repressed peoples" of the territorial rehabilitation;
- Cancellation of the Ossetian side the impossibility of coexistence of the Ingush and Ossetians;
- The return of refugees to their former places of residence in accordance with the agreement of Kislovodsk;
- Definition of villages Chermen, Kurtat, Dongaron and Dachnoye Suburban area as populated areas of refugee return in the first stage;
- Removal of equipment and disarming all illegal armed formations in North Ossetia and Ingushetia. December 13th 1993, President Yeltsin signed a decree "On the order to return to their homes of
refugees and internally displaced persons in the territories of the Republic of North Ossetia and the Ingush Republic," which defined the four above-mentioned villages Suburban area for return of Ingush-the first step. However, until the summer of 1994 the Government did not undertake any action to prepare the return of refugees and in the Suburban District of North Ossetia in December 1993 - spring 1994 there was the second wave of destruction left Ingush houses. At the same time greatly increased the number of terrorist acts against the Ingush people, remaining in the settlements Mayskoe and Kartsa and returned to the village of Chermen. In April 1994, with the connivance of the authorities and law enforcement officials in North Ossetia town Kartsa was completely blocked by Ossetian militias so-called "protection of the Office of National Economy" (formerly "popular militia"), and several villagers were taken hostage. In the village of Chermen hostage was led by the head of local administration - the former commander of the "militia".
In the 30th of May 1994 in another decree to extend the state of emergency in the conflict region, Russian President ordered the complete first phase of the return of refugees in the four settlements to July 31st and by December the 1st to create conditions for the return of all refugees.
On Russia's initiative in April 1994 in Nalchik between the leadership of North Ossetia and Ingushetia talks about returning and resettlement of refugees have begun. The Ingush side insisted on the return of refugees under the following two principles set forth in Kislovodsk agreements - voluntary return and the availability of residence in the territory of North Ossetia. The Ossetian side put forward conditions for the return of refugees, firstly, the registration of residency, and secondly, the consent of the Ossetian population of the settlements, which should be returned to the Ingush, and thirdly, the passage of refugees through the filters of special commissions, which must verify and confirm the "reliability" and loyalty returning Ingush.
In the 26th of June 1994 in Beslan (North Ossetia) president R. Aushev and A. Galazov, as well as head of the Russian Provisional Authority V. Lozowy signed agreed "Procedures for the return and resettlement of refugees and internally displaced persons to their former places of compact residing in settlements Chermen, Dongaron, Dachnoe, Kurtat of Suburban District of the Republic of North Ossetia." The document envisaged the following order:
1) at a preliminary stage was supposed to specify lists of refugees with residence in these settlements, and to restore basic services (gas, electricity, water) and major community facilities (clinics, kindergartens, schools, etc.);
2) in the first stage should be formed by a group of returnees, "taking into account the recommendations made by the conciliation commissions on the basis of conciliation", it was assumed that the examination of candidates for conciliation commissions create an obstacle to returning to the suburban area of Ingush militants - parties to the conflict in November 1992 year (in this issue of the South Ossetian militants paper rounds);
3) in the second phase might begin the return of refugees and survivors of the house installation of temporary housing; also supposed to restore all the necessary infrastructure community facilities.
The implementation of Beslan agreements was torpedoed by the authorities of North Ossetia, who said that before the reconstruction of housing and social infrastructure of the whole can be no question of returning refugees in the village of Suburban Region. Representatives of Vladikavkaz, refused to discuss the timetable of refugee return, and proposed instead a schedule of construction and rehabilitation works. Postponing the date the return of Ingush refugees to the villages of the Suburban district for an indefinite period, the government of North Ossetia in fact delayed the solution.
The work of conciliation commissions established by the representatives of the Ossetian population Suburban area unilaterally, has become a farce: so, according to Human Rights Centre "Memorial", held in April 1994 gathering of Ossetian villages and Kurtat Dachnoe, who took over the functions of a conciliation commission of more than 4 thousands of Ingush living in these villages, allowed to return only 27 person.
In July 1994, the Interim Administration an emergency district has developed their plan of returning refugees, which included after the restoration of essential communications and necessary community facilities to begin the return of the Ingush, without waiting for full restoration of housing. The 8th of August 1994 representatives of the Russian Government (Deputy Prime Minister Sergei Shakhrai, Minister for Ethnic Affairs Egorov V and Head of VACHP V. Lozowy) signed compiled on the basis of this plan, schedule for returning refugees. However, the president of North Ossetia, A. Galasov refused to approve the document. In response to pressure from Moscow insisted on an early start of the return of Ingush refugees, head of North Ossetia, in March 1995 in an interview with "Novaya Caucasian Gazeta," said that if during the return "someone tries to accelerate with the use of force" that he "would have to to declare and lead the national liberation war ", as a result of which" there will be tens of thousands of new refugees from North Ossetia, but Russian-speakers”.
In August 1994, in Oslo (Norway) was hosted a meeting of the contact of Ingushetia and North Ossetia, initiated by Foundation of Andrei Sakharov and the International Institute for Peace Research (Oslo). They agreed on the following conditions:
- The return of refugees should be based on the principle of voluntary and non-participation of returning refugees to commit crimes during the conflict;
- The return of refugees can not stipulate the terms of the preliminary reconstruction of the destroyed housing and infrastructure;
- Refugees should be given the opportunity to return to surviving at home without any additional conditions;
- To accelerate the return of refugees is necessary to create conditions for their involvement in the reconstruction of housing and infrastructure with the provision of necessary assistance;
- Refugees from Vladikavkaz, who do not have the opportunity to return to their homes and
apartments should be possible to exchange or sale of housing.
In spring 1995 there was a new aggravation of the situation in suburban areas. The 25th of May Ossetian militants during the actual support of the authorities and law enforcement officials detained the Suburban Area convoy of returning refugees. The militants accused Ingush of involvement in the hostages, but the charges were not supported by any evidence and were likely to provide a formal pretext for the
blockade of the Ingush column.
The 11th of July 1995 presidents R. Aushev and A. Galazov signed in Vladikavkaz, a settlement of relations between the republics. The authorities in North Ossetia regarded a sign of the document as a "failure of the Ingush side claims to the Suburban area." Leadership of Ingushetia, expressing their desire to restore the integrity of the historic lands of the Ingush people, voted for the introduction in the Suburb of the federal form of government. North Ossetia considers this proposal unacceptable.
In early 1996, in the villages of the Suburban district there were re-launched attacks on returning Ingush and conflict escalated in the spring around the village of Tarskoye. March the 11th 1996 a few cars with Ingush refugees returning to the village of Tarskoye were blocked by Ossetian militias and supporting local Ossetians people who declared their determination to prevent the return of Ingush. The refugees were
forced to return to Ingushetia. Commenting on the incident, the representatives of North Ossetia said that "morally and psychologically they are not ready to accept the return of Ingush."
April the 5th 1996, Russian President Boris Yeltsin signed a decree on the return of Ingush families in Tarskoye in three days. By the 10th of April, 11 families arrived in Tarskoye (out of 20 originally planned to return), but by mid-May they were forced to go back to Ingushetia. May the 13th another 20 Ingush families moved to Tarskoye.
The 20th of April 1996 representatives of North Ossetia and Ingushetia approved a new "Order of the return and resettlement of refugees and internally displaced persons…”, according to which the first is supposed to return the refugees in the village of Chermen, Dachnoe, Kurtat, Kartsa, Octyabrskoe, Kambileevskoe and Tarski. The 15th of October 1997 presidents of North Ossetia and Ingushetia, as well as Prime Minister Viktor Chernomyrdin signed a program of actions to overcome the consequences of the Ossetian-Ingush conflict, which provides the acceleration of the process of refugee return and reconstruction of housing and social infrastructure in Suburban areas. The 25th of November 1997 in Nazran, the government delegations of Ingushetia and North Ossetia discussed the implementation of the Programme of Action and recognized "the inadmissibility of doubt and new interpretations" of this document.
Ossetian-Ingush conflict, which arose long ago, is constantly in agitated state. Only today's internal conflicts in Ingushetia, the crisis over South Ossetia, a large number of military units on the border until do not concentrate attention of the Ingush on the right bank.
Ossetians are one of the aborigines on the NC, adherents of Orthodox Christianity. They are amongst the first voluntarily became part of Russia and did not participate in the Caucasian highlanders war against the Russian Empire in the 19th century. Since the early '90s there was not noted one of separation, or the nationalist movement in the territory of North Ossetia, where Russian migration from the republic remains minimal throughout the NC. Now Ossetians are reliable ally and a bulwark of the Center.
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