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8.3. Questions "Olympics on the blood," "Genocide of the Circassian people" and "Great Cherkessia."
Even at first glance, peace and good in itself act as the Olympic Games, may cause protest and enhance the separation process in the NC. Winter Olympics 2014 will be held on the slopes of the Caucasus Mountains, but none of republics of the NC is not presented as a national pride. Moreove neither logos no speeches of politicians, athletes, there is no mention of the Caucasus, as the place of venue. This incorrect does not make it to wait. Immediately some of the Circassian community organizations in Russia and abroa acted against, sent an appeal to IOC, which immediately found a positive response to the forum of the Chechen, Ingush, Dagestani sites.
The most consistent in terms that protect and advance the topic in the media space is Adyghe socio-political movement "Circassian Congress." Murat Berzegov, leader of the movement, said that the Olympic Games to be held in the historic residence of Circassians, as a good in itself by concealing the Circassian issue - and above all recognition of the genocide Circassians in the Caucasus War - will turn into "the Olympics of lies." Statements by M. Berzegov close to him and leaders of the national Circassian diaspora organizations immediately found a positive response and blew up many Caucasian forum sites on the Internet. Over 200 people came out of the Circassian diaspora in front of the Russian embassy in Istanbul, the Russian consulate and UN offices in New York under the slogan "No Olympics for blood", "Sochi is ground of genocide."
Immediately a new project is created - Circassian Olympics 2012 . Among the goals of the Olympics there is the question of widening the Circassian regions into a single republic, rehabilitation of the Circassian people, only a tenth part of which remained after the end of the Caucasian war, the repatriation of the Circassians who have been evicted from their homeland. It is planned that the games will be attended by Circassian (Circassian) athletes from around the world. In conducting it will be used Adyg’s symbols. As for the authors of the 2012 Olympics, the use of ethnic symbols should compensate for the absolute absence of Caucasian attributes in branding the Sochi Olympics.
In Jordan has already passed the ninth presentation of "Circassiad 2012" in 12 sports (the number of stars in the Circassian flag). Authors of the project have already made presentations in Russian cities, including Moscow, St. Petersburg and Sochi, as well as abroad - in the U.S., Turkey and Syria. Follow-up are planned for Abkhazia and the UK. The presentation in Amman was organized by Circassian Benevolent Society of Jordan, where the story is told in detail the tragedy of the Circassian (shown in movies, handed the book), which occurred almost 150 years ago, when the war Circassian people were scattered around the world and at home there was only one tenth of the nation: "Today the world remembers about our tragedy, we are for the world to know about us through an Circassiad. Enough of the calamities and tragedies and tears were shed by our fathers 150 years ago".
Another event was the conclusion of the project between the authors' Circassiad "and the leadership of the Circassian satellite channel" Nart TV "cooperation agreement, under which the channel has become an official partner of the world's Circassian games in 2012. " Nart TV" is the first non-stop satellite channel which is broadcast on several satellites, covering most areas of compact residence of Circassians - the Middle East, Europe and the Caucasus.
As a result of negotiations between the sponsors' Circassiad "and the leadership of the Circassian Benevolent Society of Jordan signed a memorandum of the main objectives and principles of cooperation in the preparation of the first Circassiad in Nalchik in 2012 and the second - in Amman in 2016.
The 21st of May 2010 marked 146 years since the end of the Russian-Caucasian War of the XIX century - one of the longest and bloodiest in human history. In the historiography of the time devoted to the events in hundreds and thousands of books, articles, essays in many languages, there is information about the nature of this war. Now we can consider it established that the war was the Russian empire against the Highlanders of the NC differed radically from the wars that Russia waged at different times. If a collision with the world powers are respected some written and unwritten rules of war, the Russian Caucasian peoples were outlawed a civilized society. During Caucasian War, Russian forces during the fighting were carried out actions that are characterized by some historians as genocide.
Background of the problem is defined by the fact that the term "genocide" in recent years is often used as a political argument. For example, in southern Russia the Cossack movement ideologues argue that the Bolshevik leaders non-Russian origin were carried out during the civil war a real genocide against the Cossacks, and on this basis, require a proper moral and material compensation.
The policy of "appeasement Caucasus," which began after the end of hostilities, had as its primary task the formation of loyalty on the part of the empire of subjugated peoples and has vast experience designing an entire region, aimed at economic integration of the region, searching for ways to control the Caucasus, the creation of entire new classes and mountain elites. In the global geopolitical plans to expand the empire the public perception of different Caucasian subregions was different. The biggest problems caused Mountaineers of Western Caucasus - Circassians, in the historical residence which were the last battle of the Caucasian War.
Archive documents that include reports, reports, commanders rescripts of regular Russian troops and commanders 'orders', took part in battles with the highlanders, actions of the chieftains of irregular Cossack troops shows that the ranks of the Russian army is not limited to conventional military operations against the Highlanders, the opposing empire in arms. Numerous documents have information that make the main conclusion that the policy of Russia in the Caucasus in XIX century cannot be regarded as conventional military operations to achieve victory in order to impose the will of the enemy, but as a war in which the task was to eliminate the ethnic map of the world as much as peoples. Otherwise, it can not explain cruelty of Russian troops from reprisals against the civilian population. These are the mass killings of women, children, old people, hostage-taking, targeted destruction of livelihoods, villages, gardens, fields and forage. They were the commanders of the Russian regiments and units that performed direct evidence of governors in the Caucasus who believe that only by force and hunger can suppress mountaineers.
The scale of the demographic and human disaster that occurred with the Circassians in 1850-1860's is very large. Contemporaries of events, including many Russian officers describe how people in a panic threw his native land, property and the graves of their ancestors. Thousands piled up on the Black Sea coast of hungry men and women, ragged children for several months waiting for ships to sail to the land of the sultan. Most die back in the way of starvation and diseases defective vehicles were often drowned in the sea. The image already dead in the Novorossiysk Bay, a young Circassian, near whom tried to escape her hungry baby, was described by one of the Russian military, for many generations of Circassians became the embodiment of the tragic absurdity of what was happening. The publication in 1924, dedicated to the end of the Caucasian War, contains the following lines: "Military operations in the Western Caucasus was removed from the historical maps of some of the Caucasian peoples, and destroyed even the memory of them".
Adyghe (Circassian) question can be characterized as a complex of problems of political history of Adyghe (Circassian) people associated with its bid for the reconstruction of the sovereign state in its historical territory, national unity and to achieve these goals, the national liberation struggle. The emergence of the Circassian issue predetermined significant loss of territory belonging by the XVIII century to Adyghe ethnicity. Circassian issue has become an integral part of the Caucasus issue and has taken a definite place in the international relations of Russia to the NC, its struggle for influence in the region.
In modern conditions the Circassian issue is perceived as an attempt Cherkessia all over the world to restore historical justice and the creation of real conditions for the consolidation of the people, the preservation of identity of Circassian diaspora, the reunification with the motherland - Cherkessia and torn away from its territory. In the process of formation of Adyghe (Circassian) ethnos, often becoming the object of aggression rose to defend their own freedom and independence. The outbreak in the second half of XVIII century military expansion of the Russian Empire was for the people their national tragedy, the consequences of which affect today.
In 1859, the war in the North-East Caucasus ended with the surrender and capture of Imam Shamil of Chechnya and Dagestan. The war in the North-Western Caucasus against the Adyghe (Circassian) was continued for another 5 years. However, Russian politicians and generals were not limited to achieve victory and subjected Western Caucasian mountaineers to mass deportation. According to official data (A. Berger) from more than one million Adyghe (Circassians) were killed in the war, over 400 thousand people were evicted 497 thousand people, in the homeland there were about 80 thousand Circassians. Huge masses of Circassian emigrants were scattered over a vast territory of the Ottoman Empire. The large influx of settlers and the Turkish administration unprepared for their adoption and placement resulted in massive loss of life.
In numerous archival documents there is information of the participants of the tragic events that makes the main conclusion - a war waged by the Russian state in the XVIII - XIX centuries against the Adyghe (Circassians) on their historic territory, cannot be treated as ordinary military operations. Russia was aimed not only to capture territory, but the complete destruction or expulsion of the indigenous people from their native lands. Otherwise it is impossible to explain the reasons for inhuman cruelty shown by Russian troops in northwestern Caucasus. Essentially was made unprecedented at the time, the grand-scale ethnic cleansing. Displacement of the Circassian population beyond the Caucasus continued until the First World War.
For the first time raising the Circassian issue at a high scientific level was carried out on the 24th - the 26th of October 1990 in the All-Union Conference on "national liberation struggle of the peoples of the NC and muhadzhir’s problem", where participants were representatives of the Institute of History of the USSR, Academy of Sciences of the USSR, the North Caucasus Scientific Center of Higher School, Kabardino-Balkar Scientific Research Institute of History, Philology and the economy, the Kabardino-Balkar State University (conference organizer).
Conclusions of the conference:
1) considered unscientific concept that has evolved during the personality cult and stagnation of the ostensibly reactionary, anti-popular, nationalist struggle of the North Caucasus mountaineers, inspired by Britain and the Ottoman Empire , and the idea in place in a certain period in the publications of contemporary Soviet writers of the alleged separatist feudal-religious , expansionist relation against Russia the movement that arose in highland backward sections of the population in the North and the West Caucasus;
2) according to the materials of the conference, the policy of the tsarist Russian in the region was conquest, colonization, the conquest of the conjugate, genocide and expulsion of most of the Circassian people of other nations and outside the country. Forcible eviction is the tragedy of the peoples. It was a consequence of the Caucasian war, was due to the difficult socio-economic and foreign policy situation caused by expansionist Russian tsarist regime. Unhelpful role in this process were played the governments of the Ottoman Empire and some Western powers;
3) The national liberation struggle of the highlanders of the North and West Caucasus in XIX century, enjoyed the sympathy and support for the advanced forces of Russia and the West was anti-colonial and progressive covered the interests of the peoples of the region;
4) It’s need to clarify the concept of "Muhajir" as inconsistent with the contents of social phenomena - the expulsion of the Caucasian highlanders outside the country;
5) To recognize the methodological inconsistency and political risk identification Tsarist Russian and the Russian people and find it necessary to conduct research in a clear distinction between them. It is equally necessary to be guided by the same criteria for interpretation and evaluation of ideological positions and the driving forces of the peoples' struggle. Issues relating to the relationship of peoples should be protected from political erosion. Need to work on further development and refinement of the conceptual and categorical apparatus (including periodization) associated with the study of the struggle of the peoples of North and Western Caucasus against the tsarist regime. Recommend to the authorities in this region to remove all symbols of military and colonial policy in the XIX century tsarist in the Caucasus, expressed in the names of streets, villages and in monuments of the king's soldiers and go to the authorities of the North Caucasus and the West on this issue.
6) To assist editors of newspapers and magazines in the preparation and publication of articles on the topic of the Caucasian War, causing an increased public interest. Scientists to actively advocate in the press, on radio and television;
7) Encourage the teaching community, lecturers, members of the media continually refer to the historical experience and spiritual heritage of peoples; widely used material of this conference to patriotic and internationalist education of workers and youth, strengthening of friendship among peoples, bearing in mind that the education of history requires, first of all , the restoration of national historical memory and the formation of the national historical consciousness on the humanistic traditions and beliefs;
8) Recommend to consider illegal celebration of the 150th anniversary of the founding cities of Sochi and Tuapse and Adler. Support the aspiration of Shapsugs Black Sea coast and ask the authorities of the Krasnodar Territory and the Parliament of the Russian Federation of deciding a national Shapsugs area;
9) To provide full cooperation and necessary assistance to foreign Adygs and other compatriots in their quest to return to their historic homeland;
10) It’s necessary to bring together professionals, historians, research centers and universities to greatly expand the source base of scientific research on the problem under discussion
In the subsequent development of the Circassian issue can be described as sluggish circulation statements to authorities. For example, the Supreme Council of the Kabardino-Balkar Republic on the 7th of
February 1997 and appeal of the President Republic of Adygea and the State Council - Hase of the Republic of Adygea the 29th of April 1996 to the State Duma with a proposal to give a legal assessment of an act of genocide committed against the tsarist government in the Adyghe (Circassian) ethnos, left without consequences. Circassian community has so far not posses any information regarding the fate of these documents.
Meanwhile, hundreds of thousands of Adyghe (Circassians) in Russia and about 3 million abroad are waiting for the Russian leadership of such an instrument, which would give political and legal assessment of the actions of the Russian Empire. Any considerations of Russian politicians, jurists, historians, past and present, which aim to rehabilitate the tsarist policy in the NC in the XIX - early XX century, under the pretext of protecting the economic and geopolitical interests of Russia in this region cannot justify the destruction of nations.
It is known that the Russian State Duma the 4th of April 1995 made a statement which acknowledged the genocide perpetrated by Turkey against Armenians in 1915. The statement said that the State Duma, "based on irrefutable historical evidence of the extermination of the Armenians in Western Armenia in the years 1915 -1922 in the spirit and the letter approved by the United Nations Convention on the Prevention of Genocide and Punishment of the Convention on the Non-Applicability Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity in an effort to revive the humanistic traditions of
the Russian state, condemned the organizers of the destruction in 1915-1922, respectively, expressed his sympathy to the Armenian people and consider the 24th of April as Genocide Memorial Day".
On the political field the NC organization "Circassian Congress" there is not so long ago, in 2004, but has already managed to distinguish bright stocks. During the hot days of autumn 2005, and formed a global network of overgrown narrative detail about the descendants of Mohajirs, including many military professionals were willing to come over the mountain passes to the rescue with arms to defend the honor of his little country.
The activities of the Congress then quickly gained international attention: thanks to the Middle East and European diaspora of Circassians was created the World Committee for Solidarity with the Republic of Adygea. To the State Duma and the European Parliament were directed treatments, in which the problem of maintaining the status of the republic linked to the recognition of the Circassian genocide. Among the signatories there were Circassian community organizations not only Russia but also Turkey, Israel, Jordan, Syria, USA, Belgium, Canada and Germany.
During this period Adygea was alarmed by the actions of security officials, who feared the repetition of Nalchik scenario in 2005 and had exceeded its powers in a number of episodes in the local mosques. Gradually, the risks of protest merger of religious and national sentiments increased, the threat of a new hotbed of tension in the region was very real. Both the Kremlin and the Krasnodar regional authorities have shown flexibility - have publicly stated policy of removing the problem of consolidation in general. It was then that the idea of building a "Greater Cherkessia" was performed not in a historical context, and as an alternative for regional enlargement. Circassian Congress proposed to merge with Russia Adygeya, Kabarda, Cherkessia and Shapsugia in Adygeyan (Circassian) republic within the historic boundaries.
"Circassian Congress" has collected and codified about 500 archival documents the period of the Russian-Caucasian war. They are available in the internet on the official site of the Circassian Congress of the Republic of Adygea-www.circassiangenocide.org. The 1st of July 2005 Circassian Congress sent a message to the application of archival documents to the State Duma to recognize the genocide of the Circassian people and got a negative response the 27th of January 2006.
" The 28th of October 2005 was sent a similar letter to Russian President Vladimir Putin, at that the 28th of April 2007 has been answered of Plenipotentiary of RF President in the Federal District, the negative and very short lines:" Your appeal for help in solving the Adyghe (Circassian) questions directed to President Vladimir Putin has been discussed. Inform you that the legislation of the Russian Federation there are no corresponding regulations governing the decision of the issues raised in your appeal.
At the same time, the expert opinion submitted by the experts of the Southern Scientific Center, Russian Academy of Sciences, shows that the events of the Caucasian war cannot be classified as genocide Adyghe (Circassians) in accordance with the "Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide" adopted by the General Assembly UN the 9th of December 1949".
According to the same form the Circassians of the United States adress to President V.V. Putin and the Parliament of the Russian Federation ( the 4th of October 2007) with the requirements of full and careful consideration of the issue of recognition of the Circassian genocide at the official level, and ethnicity rehabilitation in accordance with international law.
Twice the 11th of October 2006 and the 8th of October 2008 20 Circassian (Adygei) organizations from 9 countries appealed to the European Parliament with a request to consider comprehensive and objective the documentary evidence and recognize the genocide of the Adyghe (Circassian) people, the perfect by Russian state since the end of XVIII to the beginning XX centuries.
However, it is only the Georgian Parliament in its Resolution conference in Tbilisi on the Circassian genocide condemned the actions of the Russian Empire in the XIX and early XX centuries. That led to the loss of independence of Circassia, and recognized these acts as genocide against the Circassian nation, announced on May 21, the date that marks a Russian occupation of the Northwest Caucasus in 1864, the day of remembrance for the victims of the Circassian genocide, recognized Sochi as a place and a symbol of Circassian genocide and ethnic cleansing (of the 20th of March 2010).
Substantiation requirements. Recognition of the genocide Adyghe (Circassian) people committed by the Russian state since the end of XVIII to the beginning of XX centuries based on:
• Large numbers of archival documents from the irrefutable historical evidence of the extermination and deportation of Adyghe (Circassians) in the North-West Caucasus;
• Adopted by the United Nations Convention on the Prevention and Punishment (New York, December 9, 1948);
• Convention on the Non-Applicability of Statutory Limitations to War Crimes and Crimes against Humanity (November 26, 1968);
• Generally accepted principles of equality of all people regardless of religion and ethnicity;
The basis that the Russian Federation - is the successor and continuator of the Russian state. Genocide means any of the following acts committed with intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnical, racial or religious group as such:
a. Killing members of the group;
b. Causing serious bodily or mental harm to members of the group;
c. Deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring its physical destruction;
d. Imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group;
e. Forcibly transferring children from one group to another.
Source: Resolution adopted by the UN General Assembly to approve the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of.
The descendants of Mohajirs, it is nearly three-million diaspora settled in 50 countries, and above all top generals and soldiers, especially influential in modern Turkey and Jordan, always responsive to what is happening in Russia. Circassian diaspora supported Russia's actions in August 2008, at numerous meetings in Turkey, Syria and Europe. Under the influence of powerful Circassian lobby in August 2008 the King of Jordan came to Russia to provide humanitarian aid to South Ossetia, and Turkey, in contrast to other OTAN countries are not condemned Russia's actions in August 2008.
As mentioned above, the main site has the most complete information on the survey marks is www.circassiangenocide.org. The website is in black and red colors. Denoted the theme of the site is: "issue of Russian-Circassian war 1763-1864 years and its catastrophic consequences for our ethnic groups have always been under an unofficial ban in any government. On this site there is the small number of Russian archival documents. But these data are sufficient to lay down a clear picture of the bloody events of that period. For each line of the documents are hundreds of thousands of civilians - Circassian (Adygei). We would like every visitor to our site to have patience and courage to read everything from beginning to end. Circassian Congress. 2010 ".
Sections; archival documents (From 1728 - 1914 more than 200 documents and 1989-1990 3) the laws on genocide; great about the Caucasus, Circassian Congress activities; gallery of memory; solution for the genocide. For example, the first 10 archival documents:
1) There is no date. Essay of zakubansky fortifications.
".. The geographical position of this region represents all the benefits of our cordon line stretched on the West side Zakubanskih land ..." State Archives of the Krasnodar Territory, f. 347, ap. 3, fol. 1G 6, 6 ., 9 ., 10, 11, 12, 13, 14, 21 vol., 34 .;
2) 1728, May. Don Cossacks and Circassians.
"... a detachment of 600 Don Cossacks and Circassians, headed by Mikhail Nekrasov (the son of an associate of K. Bulavin - Ignat Nekrasov) against the king's troops ..." The collection of archival documents relating to the history of the Kuban Cossack army and the Kuban region. - P. 38.;
3) The 1769 Campaign of general Medem to Kabarda.
"... Kabardian surrendered unconditionally. Medem has appointed to them Russian police officer and explaining to them the value and sanctity of the oath, he moved to the Kuban region, wishing to take advantage of the impression as soon as possible, which was supposed to produce in the mountains of the news of the extermination of the Circassian squad ... "V.A. Potto. Caucasian war. Volume 1. - P. 60.;
4) 1779 Se the 27th of September. The assault of the island on the river Malka.
"... There was nowhere to retreat Kabardins, however, to offer to surrender they answered with rifle fire ... and all that was on the island, formed under the bayonets of the Russian soldiers ..." V.A. Potto. Caucasian war. Volume 1, p. 98.
5) The 1788 Reports of General Lieutenant Talyzina to Prince Potemkin - Tauride.
"... Killed or drowned in rivers, more than 1,000 enemy, 50 men and murzinskie wife were taken prisoner, got a booty 3400 cattles, 4000 sheep ..." Materials for the History of the North Caucasus in 1787, 1792. E.D. Felitsyn (Caucasian Collection Volume 17), p. 422-123.
6) 1790, October 7-9. Baron Rosen forces between the rivers Psekups and Pchasom on fire bzhedugami left villages, on the river Mata 8 villages were destroyed and the Pshishe were burned 28 villages of the same "tribe." Butkov P. Materials for the new history of the Caucasus. Part 1, St. Petersburg, 1869, p. 228.
7) 1791 Gudovich in the Caucasus.
"... Marked the beginning of the actual line of the Kuban, which is generally maintained its original position to almost the end of the war in the Caucasus region and colonization Zakubansky region ...."
Materials for the History of the North Caucasus. 1787-1792 E.D. Felitsyn (Caucasian Collection Volume 17), Tiflis 1896, p. 418-419.
8) 1800 - Expedition under the command of Major - General Drashkevich.
"... Band of soldiers managed by Eremeev captured fromthe Circassians 2542 head of cattle of different kinds. Cattle from the Circassians were captured by troops, and in other places. The Emperor Paul, who announced the troops who participated in the destroying of zakubantsy, highest blessing, he ordered all the booty divided among the Cossacks and regular troops. The share of Chernomorets got 660 head of cattle and 2684 sheep... " F.A. Shcherbina. History of the Kuban Cossack army. Vol. 2, p. 156.
9) 1800 Trips of Ataman F.Y. Bursak.
"From the first steps Ataman Bursak solicited permission of trips to the Circassians with punitive purposes. When the government troops were given this right, Bursak has taken a number of campaigns in the Kuban 1800, 1802, 1807, 1809, 1810 and 1811. At various times, the Cossacks, under the personal command of Bursak, visited the lands bzhedugov, natuhaytsev, Shapsugs and abadzehov. Each time the Mountaineers were defeated, and their villages were destroyed, corn and hay - the fire, cattle - the hijacking, as war booty. Bursak himself was made for these actions to Major General in 1807, Mr.. " Ibid, p. 75
10) 1802 Punitive expedition of chieftain Bursak.
".. 200 Circassians were 200 killed and 300 were wounded. The Cossacks captured all four auls, captured 532 of people and the prince Budzhuka family. In the production squad has got 1158 heads of cattle, 1396 sheep and 2432 pieces of goats .... " Ibid, p.158.
Conclusions of Strategic Policy of Site and all activities of Adygeya republican social movement "Circassian Congress" concluded in the words of its chairman Murat Berzegov: "Today we have to go in one direction - a legal solution to the Circassian issue through the recognition of genocide by the international community. This could become a national idea that will unite the Circassians around the world to recreate our historic homeland for ethnic group and give him long life and prosperity. A more important problem we have no. We believe in the power of international institutions and international law on which the entire civilized world lives".
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