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3.2.1. Sabotage and guerrilla warfare.
The value of today's guerrilla warfare in the republics is underestimated, and yet it is extremely large. Properly organized struggle, covering a vast area, almost completely can seize power in one area of a republic, create anxiety among the population, anxiety, and to some extent even to reconcile them with the idea of the need for decisive action that can stop the Russian citizenship (alarming state of uncertainty). If from the start in good time to consider and prepare all the experts of this kind of struggle, it will be underwritten by lightning, and consequently, many lives will be saved and the time valuable for the republics will be saved too.
The goals, objectives and methods of guerrilla warfare are very different from conventional warfare. For successful action in such a war the person who develops interventions must understand the opponent and the unique environment where they act, namely to base its activities on the part of the organizing efforts of the civilian population of the republics to resist, counteract or offset the existing pro-Russian government.
Prerequisites for the success of the insurgency:
- Vulnerable population. Whatever the causes - social, political or economic - the population in general is open to change. Need to offer people hope for change and take advantage of their discontent towards the current government; the public support of the separatists can be both passive and active. It is not necessarily, that the entire population supported actively the rebels, but the main part of the population must support them passively;
- Presence of monolithic guiding force. By itself, the vulnerability of the population cannot lead to large-scale insurgency. It should be the guiding element, which can send disorder disillusioned population into the mainstream of the overall strategy of insurrection. All possible steps should ensure unity of effort that requires the involvement of all participants in the process of achieving common goals;
- Weakness of state control. Weakness (corruption, lack of training, etc.) gives security forces a better chance of success of the uprising;
- External support. Such support may be a physical (transmission of equipment, weapons, supplies, equipment, shelters, personnel or military units), and psychological. The latter is especially for the political support of the country recognizing the rebel movement as a movement for freedom and independence of people.
Built on the principle of network structure Caucasian Jamaats today have a minimum of vulnerabilities and quickly make up their losses, it is wonderfully self-organizing systems and self - structuring. The Mujahideen had already converted to self-sufficiency and not heavily dependent on foreign aid, preferring to fill up the budget of local officials and businessmen. The vectors in their propaganda changed - now they look like ordinary Muslims, gradually destroying the world and bringing straights «upgrade». It will not be quite right to neglect this vast and quite self-sufficient force.
The following main points of sabotage and guerrilla activities, which if necessary can be used:
- Carrying out terrorist acts;
- The establishment of mobile units;
- Work with the public;
- Laying of the civil administration.
1. There are a variety of estimates of terror. The attacks tend to make on orders from above. In most republics, as a result of increased repression of acts of terrorism will prevent the establishment of legal and semi-legal relation between the separative power and the people, and will keep their union for the deployment of the actions required at some point. Is not desirable also a syndrome of «getting used to the constant danger of» the local population, which is fraught with the development of apathy.
However, in Chechnya and Dagestan repression by the security forces are already so strong that all the legal activity not only the separatists, but also any sort of opposition is suppressed and the action of the masses will be impossible, unless they will stimulate with violence. Therefore, when deciding on the application of this type should be in advance to consider whether the results are useful for separation in each country.
Quite different are the mass terror and the terror of an individual. Methods of mass terror, are unacceptable, because it does not give the desired results: such methods can alienate people from the movement and lead to an unjustified loss of life. Individual terrorism is admissible in exceptional cases. They resort to it when they want to eliminate one of the main representatives of the authorities or security forces. You cannot risk using the death, entrusting them the elimination of the rank and file employees.
Planning of terrorist attacks is just specific activities and requires a certain caution on the part of professionals. This process is impossible without further after the terrorist attacks an information management. In this case, the control does not imply a direct deliberate deception ("terrorist act isprepared by Russian special services"), it is about interpretation. It uses some techniques of working with information for its optimal effect on the population. These include emotional makeup (the use of emotional material and in low-speed specific facts and figures). When obstructed the work of the journalists of the central Russian mass media, the Internet becomes a field of information warfare: how to describe the cause of terror, a biography of Shaheed (shakhidki), the consequences of terrorist attacks, warnings and conditions of subsequent terrorist attacks, etc.
2. Caucasian soldiers have qualities such as boldness, surprise, a tendency to act under cover of night, which apparently were the main characteristics by virtue of their geographical location. Of course, you must accept and accompanying romantic ideas - the desire to look like wolves, also gather in flocks, divide the spoils, do not wait. The main feature of the rebels made with territorial conditions, is the mobility that allows, if necessary, for a few minutes to leave for a considerable distance from the area of operation, and for several hours - to be on the border with other republics and even in Georgia, thereby permanently change front and avoid encirclement.
Now the size of the gangs in the main does not exceed five. This limitation is important because of the unfavorable conditions for large groups - a maximum alert law enforcement, the probability of committing acts of repression of relatives of militants and is practiced denunciation is practiced widely. It must have in mind, and such negative factor: the detachment of these conditions cannot be strongly disposed from the places where he ought to act. Since speed of action and change places, it must combine a relatively small distance from the place of action and absolute obscurity in the afternoon.
Today, operations may be performed only by a sudden attack on one - two security officials or employees of administrations. At first it might seem that the avoidance of open battle is cowardice. In fact, it's just a feature of the strategy of guerrilla warfare, the ultimate goal of which is like the ultimate goal of any war - to achieve victory, destroying the enemy - a systematic «harassing» activities that drive the Russian troops to resort to defensive tactics. The impression of the ability to strike anywhere is made, sometimes quite unexpected. «Disturbing» and «exhausting» operations are the base of tactics of groups seeking to avoid direct confrontation with a large force of federal troops. The basis of action is fired, which is apt and main from the short distances. However, guerrilla warfare is only the initial stage of a conventional war, and therefore it is impossible to achieve a final victory. In the matter of organization of combat units cannot stick to any one, unique scheme. The organization of unit may take various forms according to the nature of the republic. Possibilities of increasing the unit and change the look of the battle until the capture of the city and the introduction of large military operations as large as possible and destroying of law enforcers in each surgical strike, attack, or a small armed clash. So the main thing is that in any case it mustn’t start military operations of any scale, if it is known that success is not assured.
At first, there is more or less armed, close-knit group that hides in the most remote mountain areas. Its communication with the public is very limited. At one point, the group holds its first successful operation. It is becoming popular in the country. And then other militants joint to it, as well as young people, carried away by high ideals. Now the group is more easily moved along the mountain settlements, expanding its ties with local residents, making new raids, disappearing every time after that. Also the group makes a surprise raids against a convoy of military arms and seize weapons.
However, as the experience of Chechnya and Dagestan showed in particular events, in some cases, when a tactical advantage and attempts to capture long-term retention of important tactically or in terms of life-support facility. They choose difficult achieving place to security forces and zone of Sharia is declared. By increasing the main core, it enjoys substantial support of the local population who give them food, and sometimes arms that support the guerrillas have from residents of even the most remote settlements in the area. Meanwhile, this core continues to grow due to the influx of new people. On occupied territory Islamic government operates, which publishes a variety of laws, schools for ideological and military training are opened. If the number of volunteers exceeds the quantity of numbers, disposed in one area (about 200), they can try to take the next county.
The main tactic of the mountaineers, as in the Caucasian War, and in the Chechen campaigns, brought them success, was a «raid - a departure». Should try to take unassailable position and to ensure that security forces refuse to attack. And then, to penetrate deep into the territory of the republic, raiding. Strikes should be applied continuously. It must constantly give the impression to security officials that they are surrounded, day and night, and in forested mountainous terrain and urban areas. All of this suggests the expansion of the territory where combat units are working. Acting sequentially, without exposing themselves to greater risk, you can «pin down» security forces, forcing them to spend a lot of human resources and most importantly - to undermine their morale esprit.
All this requires careful interaction with the community and excellent knowledge of local area. Over 15 years of warfare in the NC the great material was accumulated, which should be scrutinized
and rethought. For example:
«... There are Mujahideen of two types: warriors for whom jihad is a duty before God and life, and the romance for whom jihad is a fascination of dreams, and imitation of another opportunity to show themselves. Amir should be able to distinguish the romantic from the others and protect them gently from some of the mysteries, because they do not keep amanat and sometimes they say a secret, if only to show their importance and awareness. Part of the romantic in the hands of infidels (kafir) or hypocrites (munafik), break down quickly and tell them everything they know and even what they are not asked. What will happen then, only one God knows, but the group is to give Bayat (promise) to Amir to keep silent in captivity about addresses, rotations and hiding places - it will give them strength and endurance, and increase self-control. It is also necessary to prepare for everybody a legend in case of capture, so there is not subjected to excessive torture and something to tell them smoothly ...»
«... One of the weaknesses of the security forces is the movement of vehicles on roads and railways, because virtually it is impossible to guard every meter of the road and each vehicle. On any site you can lay an explosive charge to bring it down. Or exploding the charge at the time of the passage of transport, to inflict heavy losses in manpower and technology. The use of roadblocks, which the objective is to undermine and destroy surviving soldiers, gave great benefit in the Chechen war, as militants are lying in ambush, seized weapons and ammunition, and military, caught unawares, were unable to use their weapons and had not time to escape. Thus, with a small expenditure of ammunition great results were achieved. As the fighting moved to the mountainous areas, the tactics of Russian troops has changed. Instead of individual trucks, they used the whole motorized columns. However, in this case, the rebels selected area skillfully, and reached the same result, split the column and then concentrate fire on individual vehicles. They always used the basic elements of guerrilla tactics, such as: excellent knowledge of the terrain, monitoring, availability of spare escape routes, know all the minor ways in which Russian troops may get to the item, and monitoring of these ways, knowledge of the population of area; help of local population by food, transportation, by providing temporary and permanent shelter (in the case when it is necessary to leave wounded comrades), the numerical superiority at a certain moment of action, the maximum mobility and the possible existence of reserves…»
«... Particular attention should be paid to telephone and radio set. It can detect your location down to 15 meters. You can listen via the phone, even if it is off and you are from up to 5 meters. So, during the meetings it should take out the battery from the phone. For communication between it is necessary to allocate certain hours (eg, every three hours) and at this time include the phone for 10-20 minutes, departing away from home. To have simple, often changeable, negotiating table, consisting of household vocabulary. It mustn’t use in discussions Islam and military vocabulary, because there are listening devices for the automatic telephone exchange, responding to certain words. In the telephone numbers should definitely write a different name, because if you call and call to you by that name, you'll know that your Mujahideen captured and is forced to call you».
«… From the phone it’s very easy to do remote control (RC). To do this, pull it out of the speaker, and checking the contacts with tester, solder two wires plus and minus, to get them out of the detonator. Most of the phones during the call calmly lit a bulb in a 2.5 V. And the old «Nokia» charges holds up during two weeks. But they must be used against standing and slowly moving targets, because the bell is always late at the same time. It would be better tuned to the radio frequency the infidels and hypocrites and talk to them a digital code ...»
Jamaat is usually divided into three groups. The first - the central group is (up to 100 people.), which is constantly with the Emir in battle state and has no permanent place of deployment.
The second group (the number depends on the size of territory and can be up to 20 people.) is situated in a village. This group is subject to, controlled and has a relationship only with the Emir. Team members were trained in special training centers and specialized in mining, sniping, sabotage and Intelligence activities. Members of the second group are highly secret and are engaged in legitimate social activities.
The third group is a group of «helpers». These are adherents and supporters of Amir, who live at home. In order to save funds, this group is not always with detachment. In the case of an order of Emir, they come to his place and do the job, then return home and engage in common or act on their own with the consent of the Emir ...
The infidels always begin Intelligence search activities generally 10 days before the full moon and end up in 5 days after the full moon. This allows them to maximum use of night vision devices for ambushes and attacks, and for self-defense. These two weeks they always move actively in small groups in the mountains and forest, and mujahidin should ambush against them all the time. To do this, determine where the most likely enemy's movement and made it an ambush of a group of 5-8 men. They should be replaced every two three days. It must arrange an ambush in the 30- 100 m above the trail or road, so as to control the 200-300 meters. It is necessary to mine the path of «buttons», as well as several places along it, behind which where the enemy can escape after the beginning of fight.
Mujahideen should lie down, stretched out on 50-100 meters and to share the area into sectors of fire. It should be between the commander of the Mujahideen and the two extremes to stretch a rope to supply conditioned signals. You cannot make a fire, talking loudly and moving around unnecessarily. You should know that the enemy study carefully every inch with the binoculars around and then move in suspicious places. It is best to wait until someone from them will not undermine, and they will come to assist him. But there are no single stamps and it must always act according to circumstances. The main thing is not to destroy the entire group and cause damage to it, thereby disrupting its plans to force the enemy to move around in the woods in large groups, that it is easier to control. But at first you always shoot a sniper and the commander or any having a radio. If the path is installed RC, they can be undermined the first. To remain RC intact after the explosion, it must be buried in the side of the charge. It should also be alert to the possibility that the enemy can come to the ambush at all on the other hand, straight at you and not on the trail.
3. Need to conduct intensive work among the population, explaining the reasons and purpose of resisters of regime, advocating the immutable truth that, ultimately, the people is invincible. First of all, should win the full confidence of the local population. This is achieved by careful attention to the problems of local residents, and comprehensive care to them, campaigning work and consistent protection of their interests and the severe punishment of those who, taking advantage of the difficulties of the moment. With respect to the local population is fairly flexible line: with people whose sympathies are with the independence movement, it is only necessary to strengthen friendship and cooperation and that the same applies to those who openly opposed the Islamic warriors, sowing enmity or spying in favor of pro-Russian security forces, they should be punished severely. We will always adhere to the basic principle: to pay in full for all that is acquired in a friendly mood of the population.
There is a new in tactical leadership of Jamaat - the involvement of women. Such tactics, for example, has used by Hamas: dozens of women who were pre-election propaganda work among the population, were held in the Palestinian parliament on the list of the organization. Exactly the same tactic used by political Islam in Central Asia: «Hizb ut-Tahrir has decided to involve as many women in their ranks as possible. Mothers of families, who are easy to enter into any house that turned out to be indispensable
agitators and propagandists. In addition, law enforcement detention of women in the population is more outcry than the arrests of men».
4. Civil Administration. The importance of this issue is great for any two separatist areas - both for Islam and for the national. Of course, they have different functions and features, but with all this, the goals that are pursued in both cases are identical. For example, both the Islamic and national versions taxes are collected, but the conditions are different in this case, the same can be said about the propaganda and supply.
On the domestic front, a number of administrative bodies create to ensure its normal operation. The term «home front» is defined territory, to a greater or lesser extent controlled by separate forces. Under this concept also means the area, suitable for carrying out the raids. A separate service makes Information-psychological work, standing above the warlords and even parts of the administration.
Work among the civilian population involves the collection of taxes - alms (zakat), and various other forms of relationships with people. It is charged with the responsibility of the relevant authority - the future financial structure of an independent state, called vakuf’s system (public transfers). The word «zakah» literally means purification, because it is believed that the payment of the tax collected for the needy, clean material prosperity, making it legitimate. In this case the «needy» are warriors for the liberation of the NC. Give clearance, i.e. give zakat, the Quran urges the faithful (2:43). Taxes come in many forms: direct or indirect taxes, direct donations and seizures. All it takes an exceptionally large role in providing the insurgency. By its actions, the freedom fighters should not let people feel any infringement. The Russian propaganda will repeatedly use this moment.
Propaganda department explains its purpose constant before carrying out an activity. Department staff set to work closely with residents, whose children, fathers, brothers or any relatives are in the ranks of the liberation army and therefore look at it as their native army. To understand the relationship with the public, it is necessary that information-psychological department has worked not only in the vacated area or country, but also had connections to the surrounding areas. Such organization will enter the territory of neighboring republics, and thereby extend the separation front.
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